Since hijra identities and bodies change slowly over time, pill by pill, and through decisions both big and small that range from the sartorial to the familial, it is quite possible that the hijra has different names and different genders in different documents. If the law mitigates the violence committed by young men by naturalizing their sexuality then could we also argue that the law in the cases cited above adheres to a gendered etiology of violence?
By citing the male names of hijras it adheres to a conceptualization of maleness that is defined by its propensity towards violence. I shall return to this point in the next section. Thus, it cannot be that it is usual procedure to collect the male names of hijras to ensure their asliness. It could be argued that given that the male names of hijras are actively suppressed it would be impossible to discover and record them in the case of their death if their family members could not be tracked.
We do not see police recording the male names of hijras who are alive and are witnesses to crime either—but surely there is a stake in verifying the identity of victims and witnesses? Even where the male name of the hijra can be recorded because of access to family members it is not if her criminality is not at stake. The hijra offspring called Susheela is a witness in the case and while her family members might easily have provided her male name, it is not recorded.
Given that the popular definition and understanding of hijras reduces them to their castrated status, it is possible that police officers when reporting the hijra murderers had insisted on checking whether the hijra criminal was castrated or not and that the male name of the hijra was attached to the criminal upon finding them uncastrated. This form of harassment is routine even when there is no crime committed.
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For example, during my fieldwork in the rural districts of Orissa, I found that the police would regularly patrol the spots where hijras solicit customers and force them to remove their clothes. Upon finding them still uncastrated, they would be taken to the police station and threatened with being put in jail. The hijras would plead for mercy and pay a bribe to be set free.
Thus, the effect of maleness was produced here primarily through language or, more specifically, by the interpellation of the hijra by her male name. The judgment upheld the sentence of imprisonment for one year, meted out because Kumkum was caught begging and booked under the Bombay Prevention of Begging Act, Pravallika, a hijra, was murdered on January 17, , in Hyderabad. While reports of this murder were carried by many English language dailies, the details of the case that emerged later were only reported via online NGO networks and statements released by the Telangana Hijra Transgender Samiti THTS.
The statement went as follows:. On the evening of Tuesday, 20th January i. She is a colleague and friend of the late Pravallika and us. On the pretext of interrogation, the police blamed her for conspiring to murder Pravallika and resorted to sub-human methods. The police had themselves urged her in our presence at the Gandhi hospital mortuary to continue going to the hot spot. We were a minimum of 20 who witnessed this request from the police. They said that they suspected that Pravallika may have been murdered by her clients and hence wanted to use our Hijra friend as a bait and a decoy.
UOI judgement of the Supreme court. Sadly, that too fell on deaf ears. Our sister transgender is very ill now and struggling the consequences of this torture. Preliminary investigations revealed that some police personnel were in touch with her before her murder. Release of the post mortem report and FIR 3.
The statement made by the THTS shows us how the biology of the hijra can be conjured up to fit the asli-nakli dynamic and consequently be used to locate violence.
The penis is made to appear when criminality needs to be proven, though it disappears in the context of intimacy and sexual transactions. Such signification marks the presupposition of maleness and its inherent propensity towards violence. Let me explain this further. If the penis can be dephallicized even in its occurrence, that is to say if it can exist without symbolizing power and authority, then the question that can be posed from the gendered reporting of violence committed by and on hijra bodies is this: what does law achieve by reading the physiological penis as the symbolic phallus or by equating the penis with maleness and in turn with criminality?
Let me first anchor the pertinence of the Oedipal drama in order to understand the asli - nakli dynamic that I have shown pervades not just hijra aspirations for authenticity but other social processes as well, such as the legal understanding of violence. He further reminds us of the legitimacy of substitution by remarking that,.
It was in fact the recognition of such substitutions that led Freud to his most fundamental discoveries about the operation of the unconsciousness and therefore about the science of psychoanalysis itself. For it was his realization that the figures of friends, colleagues, etc. It is thus only by substituting actual fathers for father figures, more specifically the brother, that we can see the epics Ramayana and Mahabharata as tales of Oedipal violence and tragedy. We can see how the hijra criminal results in an analogous dilemma.
If the hijra is expected to be asocial, an ascetic who has walked away from the duties of the householder, forsaken the oedipal tragedy and its promising futurity, then how is her criminality to be understood in terms other than nakliness given that her asliness is defined by her incorruptibility? Such a function has as its task to put into play, in the unconscious representations of the subject, the power to institute separation by words.
The essence of the phallus with which the court cases and police reports imbue and refer to the hijra penis not only consolidates a certain idea of maleness but also configures the hijra within a normative oedipal development and thus render her nakli. Hijra politicians never stand on their male names. They are not only made famous through their female names but their hijraness and consequently their incorruptibility depends on those names and on the breaking from one set of obligations signified by the male name and the taking on of another through female ones such as Shabnam Mausi, Asha Devi, Manisha Aai, and most recently Madhu Kinnar, the elected mayor of Raigarh.
Apart from such well-documented and spectacular instances of hijras attaining political offices, many more local instances were visible in rural Orissa. During the course of my fieldwork I was taken to meet a hijra in her mid fifties who had won elections at the block level. While in our brief conversation she emphasized that she was elected because people knew she was honest and hard-working, the government officer who had taken me to meet her rehearsed the logic that it was because she could not have a family that she was incorruptible.
Similarly, Jaina and Azgari, who were the oldest and senior most hijras in Bhadrak were often called upon to sit on local neighborhood committees that oversee the management of funds collected for local celebrations, precisely because of their purported incorruptibility. The different connotations of the male and the female name for defining hijra identity in the eyes of the state point towards the wider gender dynamics that inform judicial and administrative reasoning and thus the limits of the subjunctive that ritual tries to enact through the name changing practices of the hijras.
These name-changing practices also encode the erosion of relationships and the hopes for new and different futures. The state, as we have seen, seeks to render hijras commensurable with its technologies of government. The male names of hijras in the legal documents that I examined not only reveal the dynamic of asli - nakli but also the imagination of violence as quintessentially male in the juridical unconscious. I read the juridical interpretation of hijras as criminals to argue for the relevance of psychoanalytical theories in thinking about law and representation.
Paradoxically, the social field is drawn between the criminality of the nakli hijra and the incorruptibility of the asli hijra. If names are actualizations of different phenomenological, juridical and temporal properties of the person that move between the public and the private, the generic and the singular, then the volatility of hijra names provides us with a unique perspective on the movement between the subjunctive and the actual, the real and its doubles, through which relationships are sustained and destroyed.
Writ petition civil no. The jealousy among the girls and fan following among the guys was quite justified because she was indeed pretty. On prom night, when she was about to win the title, her competitor Ria, who was always jealous of her got into a fight with her. First you took away my friends and then my boyfriend and now even the prom queen title? Easy man! And mind you, your boyfriend came to me. If you think you are that beautiful then go prove it. Win some big title and then flaunt.
Just watch it bitch. She shook the hand saying thanks. And then adjusted her crown for the picture. I hope you have heard about it. So would you like to join me? I-I mean my company? I can take you to the top. Here, take my card. Give me a call as soon as you make up your mind. See you later. I know what I have to be. The next morning she called him up telling her decision so he called her to his office to do the necessary paperwork. And that is how she entered the fashion industry to rule it. I have an appointment with Mr. She turned to her left only to find Ansh standing in the elevator waiting for her.
He looked mind- blowingly dashing in his black business suit. Roshni was standing there thinking how smart he is when he again took her name and brought her back from her thoughts. She got into the elevator and wished him. Roshni, how are you? And did I mention you look gorgeous? So he knew the tricks to impress a girl. Infact awesome! You can imagine how can I be. Ansh laughed and gave her a look. There were Awards n photos placed all over the shelves. He offered her a seat n sat in front of her. They conversed for a while, mostly flirted before his assistant entered the office with contract papers.
I mean the contract. Shall we discuss it? Sure sir. Sir makes me feel too old. Everyone in my office calls me Ansh only. Roshni is not like every other model. She signed the contract with a broad smile. And yes, you have a point. So what say we go out tonight and celebrate? My treat. Be ready by 8 pm. Jenny who was silently noticing all this, threw the contract file on his desk and went out fuming in anger. Not being able to put his concentration to his office work anymore he made his way to the Salon he usually went to.
How have you been sweetie??? You know how it is with all the hot shots of the city coming to my Salon.
Aditya, The Man from Nowhere 1: The Inner Curse
I hardly get time to breathe! You are my all time favourite. All the while Ansh was in the Salon, he could not stop his mind from wandering into the thoughts of Roshni; her beautiful smile, her thick brown coloured hair, her big black twinkling eyes, her beautifully curved lips. Yes, her beautifull small lips. How nice it would be to kiss them. Kiss them till the break of the dawn, till we both can take it nomore!
The mere thought of kissing Roshni was enough to make Ansh feel aroused. He could feel the pressure building in between his legs, he could feel the urge. She knew what effect she had on boys and Ansh was no different. He might be the Director of a nation wide famous magazine but deep down he was a guy. A guy with needs, sexual needs. And Roshni knew very well how to extunguish such needs for her own benefit. After much pondering, Roshni settled for a black dress.
The dress was perfect for the occassion. It was sexy yet not too revealing which added to the air of mystery. She paired with a shiny black stilleto and a pair of black earrings with her hair tied to a tight ponytail. To add to her beauty, a layer of red lipstick was added to her perfect lips. He was amazed to look at Roshni, she looked hundred times beautiful than she did early in the morning. He wondered how anyone could look so beautiful. The rest of the journey was spent talking about their respective likes and dislikes. They both were alike in various aspects, yet strikingly different.
The difference between them was what attracted Roshni to Ansh all the more. As they reached the famous restaurant Paradise, they were escorted to their already reserved seat by the manager. While the couple walked to their table, every head in the Resturant turned to look at Roshni.
The men out of lust and the women out of jealousy. The conversation was an easy one. Both of them talked about everything. Roshni told Ansh about her friends and he told her about his foes. The dinner was more like an excuse for both of them to spend time together as they hardly ate anything. It was time the waiter asked them what they would want to order for dessert to which Ansh told Roshni that they would have the dessert somewhere else, a special place. This was supposed to be a treat from my side. Ansh did not say anything but winked with a smile while closing her door.
Ansh zoomed his way to the destination in full speed and Roshni enjoyed the fast drive to the fullest. He was not sure if Roshni would like it, but when he saw the glow on her face, he was glad to see her happy. Before Ansh could get down from his car, Roshni had already reached the gola wala and was deciding upon her flavour. Ansh was delighted to see Roshni dancing with joy.
So every now and then I come here but alone. The same reason you see. You are the first one I brought here with me. He came near the car holding the golas in his hand when he saw Roshni struggling with her heels. He asked Roshni to hold both the glasses. She was confused but held them. As she took them, Ansh lifted her up and made her sit on the bonnet. She laughed on his act and handed him his glass. He just kept on looking at her while she was busy eating the dessert. Within a few minutes she was done and got off the bonnet to throw away the glass.
I like to enjoy it slowly. While Ansh was having it, Roshni said nothing but just kept on staring him. Is something wrong? Ansh laughed out loud and forwarded his hand to give her a bite. She winked at him and had another. She was playing like a child. He also had a bite. They both started fighting over the gola. When Roshni was taking a bite, Ansh took a bite at the same time and accidently bit her lips. Careful Ansh. Let me see. They both were so close at that moment that she could feel his breath on her face. She was getting turned on with his touch.
She closed her eyes while he held her so close. Looking at her reaction, he placed his lips on hers and kissed her gently. This time she responded to his kiss. He sucked her lower lip while biting it in between. She gripped his hair in her fingers and pulled him closer. He rolled his tongue into her mouth and caressed her bossoms from above her dress. He made his way down her neck while kissing her softly. He was gently biting her neck, and she was enjoying this sweet pain with pleasure. They were so lost into each other that they almost forgot that they were in the car.
Sensing the trouble they might get into, he threw Roshni back on the seat, geared up his car and fled away on a high speed. While he was busy speeding up, she was busy setting her dress and hair right. When he was sure they were safe, he stopped the car at a corner. It was now clear in his mind that Roshni would be his next girlfriend. And for Roshni, well, she got her new Atm card. Roshni was doing great as a model. And Ansh was doing great as a boyfriend. Yes, they were dating now.
But this was a secret relationship. They went out on dates, outdoor shoots. Whenever they got the opportunity they made out, whether it was his office, her make up room, his car and what not. You will spoil my make up. I have my photo shoot in five minutes. Just one kiss. Saying this Ansh leaned forward and they starting kissing. He faked coughing, giving Ansh the signal of his presence.
Roshni immediately started blabbering.
You are back. I missed you. Come here, let me introduce you to the new face of our company. Roshni, this is Arjun. And Arjun, she is Roshni Sen. Ansh got a phone call and left the two there. Arjun forwarded his hand and Roshni shook it. A hot and ravishing guy; with a built that could kill every girl, height that of a perfect model and a smile that could make any girl fall for him, was as perfect as PERFECT could be. He was totally the opposite of Ansh, physically as well as emotionally. Though opposite in every respect, Arjun and Ansh were great buddies.
He was smart and witty and good looking and knew how to bend the rules according to his own needs. And if you are done with his enquiring can we start over with our last session?? As Ansh made love to Roshni, all she could do was think about Arjun and how erotic their nights together could be. What will I do without you?? Nothing works without me. And as Ansh responded to her kiss, someone knocked at the door.
Is it necessary that I go for the shoot?? I mean there are better male models under you, then why me?? Says that she cannot trust anyone else other than you. A call, asking Ansh to come down to the meeting room left Roshni and Arjun alone in the office. Arjun Singh?? Few days after that incident both Roshni and Arjun alongwith the crew left for the shoot. They would work all day long and then party all night. It was a wonderful outdoor shoot. Little did they know that this outdoor shoot was the only thing that would change all of their lives.
One night after a usual party, Arjun offered to drop Roshni to her room. They both were, though, staying in the same hotel. As he was about to make his way to his room leaving her at the doorstep, Roshni called after him. They were pretty much already drunk and five more rounds of vodka shots were enough to throw them out of their senses. Should I be with someone else?? Arjun kissed her passionately and with full of hunger. They both were, indeed, hungry. With great speed, Arjun made his way to unbotton her shirt.
He kept on fondling her breasts as hard as he could; while Roshni kept on moaning with the pleasure and pain of it. Naked, both of them made love all night long. Hard and passionate love; biting and nibbling and moaning and groaning. The shoot was over within two more weeks, but that did not stop Roshni and Arjun from making out. They would make out at every chance they got, and Ansh being busy with a fashion show and his magazine, chance of making out were higher. But, on the other hand, Ansh was falling in love with Roshni all the more.
He would do anything to make her happy, he wanted her to be with him forever. And Arjun was same as Roshni. He knew where his benefits lay. It is a very special party. She does not know anything about it. You keep it to yourself okay? I got no time to ask you about it. You have made a great choice, Ansh.
Ansh invited each and every limelight of the city to his party. Brown, being a famous detective, was there too. But little did Ansh expect he would be ditched by his love and his best friend. After he caught them making out, he slapped Roshni and left from there. Please handle the party for me.
First Arjun left the party in a hurry. Then I saw Roshni going out wiping her face and now you too are leaving? He was furious and was having flashes of what he saw up in the terrace; and this added to his fury all the more. He was driving dangerously. He was drinking beer after beer, throwing the bottles out on the road. That was the time he realised what he was about to do, so he left his car and went home in a cab.
After he reached home, he directly went to his room and had as much alcohol as his stomach could handle. He was heart broken. He never thought Roshni would do such a thing behind his back and that too with his best friend. The mere thought of them made him furious again. Maybe Arjun was forcing himself upon her.
Maybe she did not want any of it. I should have listened to her atleast. But before that I must make sure none of the evening drama has been aired. The news airing in the channel only left Ansh shocked and dumbfounded. Chapter 7 Ansh could not believe it at first. He was in a state of shock. He was brought back to his senses when his phone rang. This is Bector from Daily News. We heard about Ms. Would you like to comment on it? He disconnected the phone and now it started ringing profusely.
He surfed the channels but found the same dreadful news every where. He grabbed the car keys and ran towards his garage. He reached her place and found an ambulance and so many cops standing there who were trying to keep the media away from the place. As Ansh made his way towards her house, he was stopped by a police officer. Yes, you. Where are you going? You can not go inside. As soon as I heard, I came here. Please tell me what happened? Rest we will be able to tell after the post-mortem only.
We are taking the body away and sealing this place. You come with me. My incharge would want to ask you a few questions about the victim. The house that he had gifted to the lady of his life, the house he had spent almost all days and nights making love to her had, now, become a crime scene. It pained Ansh to see everything in such a mess. First Roshni leaves then Arjun and now you! How can I even overlook it.
Arjun is the murderer. He killed my Roshni. That is it! I know. Please wait outside and when we call then tell us what you know.
No, Sir. You cannot waste a single moment now. Listen to me atleast. Ansh, tell us what you know. He is my employee. I can give you his every personal information. We are in no hurry to make an arrest. Always high in every thing. What do you people say that?? Adrenaline rush. Let us make it simple, eh?
So when was the last time you saw Roshni? Ansh looked at the ACP with astonishment. So now you tell me why did your girlfriend cheat on you with your employee?? Was she not happy with you?? Could you not give her what she wanted?? We hear that rich people stay in a relation only for two things- money and sex. So which one did she not get?? Money or sex.
Ansh was furious. But he knew it was not the right thing to lose his temper. It would only affect him. Roshni and Arjun had already left the party with a gap of 5 minutes. And we also know that Roshni directly went to her apartment. Which leaves you Mr. Where were you between I was upset about the incident and so had left the party and went directly to my home.
You went back to your home after am. Your gaurd confirmed it. I was at my place. Anyways, do you have any alibi Mr. What for?? I did not kill Roshni. And why should I. I am the owner of such a big franchise and she is the love of my life. Why would I kill her! Ansh, do you? Chapter 8 After about a week, with the help of his money and his best lawyer, Ansh was out of Jail.
Her parents did not come to claim her body and I thought you would want to cremate her body. I want to see her for the last time. Thank you for waiting. We have finished the post mortem. These rich people kill and die and then we need to lose our sleep, food and everything. He had not come to office and was not at his apartment too. It seemed like he vanished into the thin air, and it made the police all the more suspicious of him.
Arjun was nowhere to be seen since the murder and thus, Ansh, too, became all the more positive that Arjun was the only one who murdered his lady love. He did not know what to do; he knew that the needle of suspicion would be pointing towards him but he did not want to face the police interrogation and disclose his whereabouts of that fateful night.
He, from his sources, had come to know that Ansh had to face a very tough time infront of the investigators. Deep within he, too, believed that Ansh was the one who could kill Roshni. Drowned in deep thoughts, Arjun drifted off to a dreamless sleep. He woke up to the sound of the calling bell ringing continuously. Still in sleep, Arjun did not bother to ask who it was and opened the door to a group of policemen standing infront of him. He tried to shut the door on their face and runaway inside but was surpassed by the policemen and was taken to the police station. Arjun Singh, I heard you tried to run away.
Is it true?? Arjun did not dare to meet his eyes and just nodded. Of course not. My running away was instinctive nothing planned or anything. And I did not kill Roshni. Why should I!! And it only meant that all your make out sessions would come to an end, you spending her money would also come to an end. Arjun was dumbfounded. His every little detail was known to the police officer. He felt like being naked infront of the officer.
Vulnerable he felt. But I would never dare to kill someone sir. Never ever. Believe me sir. You were seen to leave the party right after Roshni. Where did you go after that?? I mean Roshni and I but Ansh found out and was furious and I did not want to lose my job by offending him more; after all it was Roshni who was crazy for me and not the other way round. I would not like to lose my job for her infedility. So I left Roshni alone with Ansh. I, then, made my way to the party but I was frustrated.
And so there was this girl in the party, she was hitting on me and so I decided to spend my time with her. Having sex with everybody. I do not have her number or any other such information. But I am saying you the truth, believe me! You bring one and you are free but till then, you are supposed to stay in the cell. While the ACP sat in the interrogating room pondering over the case, a constable came in to inform him about a boy who wanted to see him regarding the murder of Roshni.
Agitated at the interruption, the ACP slowly made his way out to meet his new visitor. A young boy, who looked timid was waiting for the ACP. His physical apperance was much different than that of both Arjun and Ansh; lean and thin, and with average height, he looked like he was suffering fron malnuitrition. I do the asking, while you people talk! Sorry Sir. I did not mean to offend you.
I just came here to say you something, which I think will be important for you. Say it fast. I have had this huge crush on her since our school days. We were from the same shool and college, too. But then she was the famous girl and I was just some another guy and so she never showed any interest in me. I even doubt if she ever knew me. Let me complete, Sir, please. I would go everywhere she went to, I would see everything she ate, I even used a binocular to look inside her house.
The day she was murdered was also no different, I was looking into her apartment. By that time she had already reached home and when I looked through I saw a girl. She was dressed in a black jacket and trousers and had scraf wrapped around her face. But I just cannot remember where! Where were you so many days, boy?? You had such a vital piece of information with you! Chapter 9 The police enquired everyone about the girl dressed in black but it seemed like nobody knew who that girl was.
No one at the party had noticed a girl dressed in all black. I was in black too. No, really! Try getting off a train at its last destination during peak hours. If you are smart, you will jump out before the train stops, or stay inside the compartment and wait for the rush to subside before quietly stepping out. It takes time to learn these skills. Meantime, you get your bones readjusted. Those looking to board the train have nothing but a seat in their sights, and do not think much about the collateral damage of their pursuit. A few bruises to the idiot trying to get out is par for the course.
It is not only about the seat. There was a news report of a fight in a local in which one man ended up dead. They were not fighting for family jewels, not even for a place to sit. Both of them wanted to stand at the door, where the air is freshest. Fresh air, by the way, is at a premium in Mumbai because most of the city is a large dump. You will feel sad for the people living in the slums and chawls. Of course, many of them consider the local train as a second home.
- Modern Biology.
- Encyclopedic reference of cancer;
- University Calculus, Early Transcendentals, 2nd Edition.
- Aditya, The Man from Nowhere 1: The Inner Curse.
- Aristoteles # Hughes, Philosophy Guidebook to Aristotle on Ethics BB.
- Secret Agenda: The United States Government, Nazi Scientists, and Project Paperclip, 1945 to 1990.
It is easy to see dinner preparations in full swing in a train compartment. Vegetables being chopped is a common site.
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