The upper ontology model defines computational entity, location, person and activity as the most important entities of a context model. Preuveneers et al. This ontology covers a wide range of concepts related with context representation, however; authors do not present any reasoning results.
Skillen et al. The work reported in this chapter incorporates various technological paradigms, such as intelligent agents, network sensors, Web services and ontologies. The use of models implemented with ontologies offers significant advantages: the ability to exchange, expand, extend and maintain the individual ontologies.
An example is the Person ontology, which can be interchanged as needed to adapt to new application needs. The incorporation and exploitation of agents, Web services and ontological models is a clear trend that promises to improve the automatic selection and invocation of legacy and new Web services. Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers.
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Downloaded: Technological approaches that integrate the hybrid solution. Description of the architecture The proposed architecture is envisioned for a wireless networked environment , where users may be identified by their mobile device mac address or by a RFID card.
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Sensor network This layer consists of a collection of physical sensors, mobile sensors and actuators. The following types of sensors are considered as part of this layer: Environmental sensors, which are used to obtain data of room temperature, humidity, luminosity and presence of persons. Automatic identification sensors carried by the user. Intelligent agents Intelligent agents play an important role into the architecture. There are specialized agents performing different roles: Sensor and actuator agent: This kind of agent is continuously sensing the environment to detect changes and report variations that are higher than a threshold.
Ontologies for context modelling In this layer, models based on ontologies for representing contextual data, data obtained from the user, data from sensors, events and physical spaces are included. Web services Web services are incorporated for two purposes. Elements of a message according to FIPA specification. Description of the message format for each type of performative. Environment state vector. Activity Types of work Average illuminance lux Minimum measured illuminance lux Work requiring limited perception of detail Kitchens, factories assembling large components, potteries 50 Work requiring perception of detail Offices, sheet metal work, bookbinding Work requiring perception of fine detail Drawing offices, factories assembling electronic components, textile production Lighting recommended values.
Special Issue on Big Data for Context-Aware Applications and Intelligent Environments
Ontologies for context modelling In this section, we describe the ontologies that were designed for context modelling and reasoning. Some classes definition from the Person ontology. Classes, object properties and data type properties of the ontology. Ontology design principles The set of ontology models reported in this chapter address particularly clarity and coherence design principles.
Conclusions The work reported in this chapter incorporates various technological paradigms, such as intelligent agents, network sensors, Web services and ontologies. More Print chapter. How to cite and reference Link to this chapter Copy to clipboard.
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Work requiring perception of fine detail. Drawing offices, factories assembling electronic components, textile production. A Person is an individual that has age, has gender, has name and has weight. A course is an individual that has course name, has credits, and has primary key. OntobUM [ 16 , [ 17 ]. User profile ontology [ 22 ]. Manually introduced by users. In most cases, though, either the application of a middleware to implement the interoperability between must previously know which infrastructure provides the con- two or more domains.
We argue that none of the federation- text it needs e. In the first case, ap- ited to information dissemination and interoperability. More- plications may become more complex, whereas in latter case, over, such approaches may cause an overload of context there is a central point of failure, which hinders the use of the types when context-aware environments are integrated in system in highly distributed environments. Some middle- global scale.
Context-Aware Computing and Self-Managing Systems
Therefore, the solution hardly meets the re- wares support the concept of a dynamic environment where quirements R3 and R4. In particular, federations of context- applications access context and share services, and support aware systems should be able to automatically discover and the migration between these environments. For example, recognize new consumers, producers, and types of context in Gaia, an active space is a physical area e. Hence, appli- identity, query translation, context adaptation, and con- cations experience disruptions after a migration.
However, text reasoning. Despite enabling in- with heterogeneity req. Confab , while scalability limitations, since each CMS represents a central others support user-centered computing, as Gaia. In Gaia, point of access and a bridge may introduce communication for example, a user can continue the same interaction in the delays. An inte- resting approach is the generation of stubs and libraries for access to context information from a descriptive model of 4. The main goal of the proposed middleware is to e- nable applications to seamlessly interact with distributed 3.
In CAMUS , federations based on context domains, each of which defines: i a set are composed of environments based on CAMUS services, of context types; ii the kind and place for storage of con- which distribute context information through tuples. All text instances; iii the form of managing clients inside the the services of an environment must be registered with the domain; and iv relationship to sub-domains. Jini discovery service. An environment with a minimum set A context domain establishes a context-aware environ- of CAMUS services for providing and using of context is ment that applies to a specific network domain.
The context called context domain. Thus, to access cepts that are specific to a logical location, and are neither context information or use a service of a specific domain, shared nor visible to context consumers outside the host do- a client must query the Jini federation, passing parame- main. Thus, each context domain maintains its own context ters such as the name and location of the target domain.
However, a concept of one domain may be re- Through this organization, applications access context by lated to a concept of its super-domain, through a sub-typing performing distributed queries. A similar approach is also relationship. Nexus  supports federations A Context Management Node CMN is responsible for of heterogeneous context-aware systems through a common managing a context domain and implementing the required abstract interface that each system must implemented. A services for storing context and disseminating it to context context-aware system must also be registered in a service consumers e.
Thus, when a context consumer moves Essentially, three components interact to create, disse- and changes the network segment where it is connected, the minate and use context information: context providers e. The CMN a sensor , context consumers e. The Context Broker sumer and the rest of the system. In order to disseminate is an abstraction of the distributed set of Context Manage- context to a specific consumer, the CMN uses a distributed ment Nodes.
The res- with the Context Broker through stubs generated by a con- ponsibility for delivering context to consumers is delegated text model processing tool, for each context type. The stub to the event service of the node currently responsible for the maintains all the details of how the context is retrieved, and context consumer.
The Event Service is responsible for providing asyn- or not to its current domain. The Context Repository main- the Context Broker. This approach avoids the use of com- tains the database of context data. CDS maintains Entity Homes, i. Formally, a consumer interested in a con- database that records any context data that describes a spe- text T of a domain D may receive context of types T1 of do- cific entity e.
In this case, D1 and D2 must be sub-domains with context instances that satisfy the consumer require- of D. In the proposed architecture, of course, context inte- ments in terms of context type and constrains. Through roperability is based on the assumption that concepts in a the entity home, a user can dynamically inspect and control domain are compliant with standard concepts defined in its how consumers may access context for a specific entity he super-domains.
Moreover, the root context domain, which owns e. Since our proto- and is also stored in context repositories as XML objects. The Event text type evolution. Our test scenario is composed of 4. Wibbles, T. Broens, and J. Bridging context lator and the Nokia N device. ACM Press. The context fabric: an infrastructure for either GPS coordinates or symbolic location provided for context-aware computing.
As basic infrastructure for access to ACM Press.
Judd and P. Providing contextual nectivity , as well as symbolic locations, we are using our information to pervasive computing applications. In previous context provisioning middleware MoCA . Pervasive Computing and Communications, PerCom Bellavista, A. Corradi, R. Montanari, and March A mobile computing middleware for  S. Kiani, M. Riaz, S. Lee, and Y. Context location- and context-aware internet data services.
In  T. Buchholz and C. Chen, M. Li, and D. Design and  A. Ranganathan, J. Al-Muhtadi, S. Chetan, implementation of a large-scale context fusion R. Campbell, and D. MiddleWhere: a network. In Mobile and Ubiquitous Systems: middleware for location awareness in ubiquitous Networking and Services, In Proceedings of the 5th An Intelligent Broker Architecture for Figures, Tables, and Topics from this paper. Figures and Tables.
Citations Publications citing this paper. An approach to domain-based scalable context management architecture in pervasive environments Zakwan Jaroucheh , Xiaodong Liu , Sally Smith. Context-aware real-time assistant architecture for pervasive healthcare Bingchuan Yuan.
References Publications referenced by this paper. Developing context-aware pervasive computing applications: Models and approach Karen Henricksen , Jadwiga Indulska. A context management framework for supporting context-aware distributed applications Herma Van Kranenburg , Mortaza S. Bargh , Sorin M.
Related Context Management for Distributed and Dynamic Context-Aware Computing
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