An efficient training program should actually be designed to have a balanced interaction. Yet, even in such cases, there are some fundamental differences between process facilitation and training facilitation , as highlighted by Barbara MacKay. Since training is about teaching new skills and concepts, and facilitation is about helping the group in thinking, trainers and facilitators need to have different, if overlapping, skill sets. As a trainer, you need to put more emphasis on learning design skills and possess more knowledge about adult learning principles.
Also, even in an interactive, well-facilitated training session, you will spend a significant proportion of time presenting concepts, as you need to provide certain theories and information to deliver the core content of your training. Alternately, as a facilitator, you would put the emphasis on process design and group interaction techniques in order to come up with a sound process.
You need expertise in verbal and non-verbal facilitation skills in order to keep the group thinking and on the right track. Still, the two worlds do overlap when it comes to speaking in front of a group and managing group conversations. The ability to communicate clearly, both verbally and non-verbally, is extremely relevant to both trainers and facilitators alike.
Project Manager as Facilitator
No one is born an expert facilitator. It is important to work on certain skills that will help you become an effective facilitator. We have collected below the most important skills that a facilitator needs, divided into two parts of the facilitation process:. So, for a one-day group process, one would need at least 2 days of preparations, although more days may be needed to deal with complex requirements, such as a controversial topic with multiple stakeholders or a large group workshop where parallel work and a whole team of facilitators are required.
Any meeting or workshop needs to have a clearly defined goal, and as a facilitator, you need to be clear about the objectives. Ask questions to understand the underlying motivation behind a meeting, and develop a consensus with the client about their goals. When you know the outcomes you want to achieve, it is time to find the right process for that.
Congratulations, you have a process! Next, you need to make sure that your process is works with the reality of time constraints, logistics, group dynamics and the natural attention levels of flesh and blood people sitting in your workshop room. In most cases, it is necessary to inform the client about the process that you are planning, and, in general, to maintain steady communication to make sure that all preparations go smoothly. Most of the time your client will have a natural interest in knowing the process and agenda for your meeting. They will have a number of people attending the workshop — meetings and workshop can be particularly expensive if you consider the time value of the people present — and they want to be assured that the group will be in good hands.
Therefore, it is important to keep your clients updated throughout the design process for their peace of mind. This also offers a chance to get further insights about the goals and the group, helping you to come up with the right session design. Getting the room properly set up for a meeting is important. Have catering arranged so food and drinks are available during breaks, and have the right workshop equipment at hand.
There are a myriad of minor tasks and to-dos on the logistic side of preparing a workshop. In other cases, you might need to do this alone step-by-step, checking that everything is going fine with the logistics and pulling the right strings when something is needed. Participation from all group members is essential for a well-facilitated meeting. One of the most important things you can do as a facilitator is to create an atmosphere that encourages participation.
This comes partially from your session design: include ice-breaker and get-to-know games to help people open up and start speaking. Meaning, make sure everyone can see each other and remove barriers from the room. While you designed the agenda for your session, you probably clearly envisioned how group members will act during the activities you planned. Now that you are in the room with the group, you also need to clearly explain what you are asking from them.
Here are a few practical tips to help:. Each group has its own dynamics with the specific and sophisticated interrelations between its members. As a facilitator, you want to create a participative atmosphere where everyone is involved. Name required. Email will not be published required. Peruse all resources, starting with the most recently added , via the site map , or back at home base. Download the Resource Guide today! They listen well, express their emotions, and speak openly about their feelings.
Their decisions reflect emotional as well as practical concerns. They assume leadership as necessary. They encourage diverse perspectives and avoid defensiveness when others disagree with their ideas. They work to ensure that all viewpoints are explored. They celebrate individual and group accomplishments and take pride in the achievements of one another.
Goals and Objectives 1 2 3 4 5 There is a lack of commonly understood goals and objectives. Leadership 1 2 3 4 5 One person dominates and leadership roles are not carried out or shared. The assessment instrument addresses the chief factors underlying inspirational cultures that are presented in this chapter. Assessment results can be used to pinpoint and thus improve weaker areas. Comparing the results can illuminate miscommunication and perceptual differences obstructing rapport among managers and employees. SUMMARY Facilitating inspiring environments requires multiple strategies, the majority of which fall to the manager for implementing or initiating.
Managers first must understand their own inspirational level—to inspire one must be inspired—and what inspires them. Clarity in their roles and how they interface with their corporate culture is imperative. Facilitating inspiring workplaces also means focusing on employees— what gives them satisfaction? How are they motivated? What can I do to make their workplace meaningful to them? Managers become not only planners, resource gatherers, and supervisors, but also cheerleaders and coaches. Certainly they are responsible for getting the job done, but not at the sacrifice of employee well-being.
Overall, how inspirational is your organization? Are there strategies you might use to create a more inspirational culture? To what extent do you model the behaviors you desire in your employees? To what extent are your values congruent with those of the organization? How do you plan to make the time for initiating, implementing, monitoring, and sustaining those characteristics that engage, motivate, and inspire your subordinates?
The support of your colleagues? FOUR Facilitating Collaborative Decision Making The concept of democracy assumes that citizens should be able to have input into decisions that affect their lives. Similarly, at work, … important decisions should involve those individuals whose work lives are affected by the decision outcome.
The best way to stay change-ready
The reality, however, is that participatory, or collaborative, decision making is not something that can be applied in all conditions. Decision making is unique to any given situation, and how it is best accomplished depends on a variety of factors— the manager, the employees, the organization, the time frame, and the decision itself. In this chapter, we address how managers can effectively facilitate decision making.
Initially, we provide a brief overview on facilitating change. Since most decisions imply change to a greater or lesser extent, managers are necessarily change agents. Step-by-step information on how to facilitate successful collaborative decision making and problem solving is included as well. Managers are responsible for moving their organizations and subordinates forward and dealing with change daily. Understanding some of the variables that influence mindset and behavioral changes can assist managers in facilitating smoother transitions for their subordinates.
Ultimately, each employee is responsible for adapting to change. There are, however, some techniques that managers can employ for initiating and managing change. We mention four techniques that appear to be particularly effective for working with adults: 1. A purpose to believe in Meaningful reinforcement Skills for adopting change Consistent, positive role models Purpose When individuals believe in the underlying purpose for change, they will more readily adapt to change.
Equally important is that they also understand their specific role in promoting this new purpose and believe it is worthwhile for them to uphold. Reinforcement For people to both adopt and continue with their new thinking and behaviors, they must benefit in ways commensurate with their efforts to change.
Within organizations, this means that reporting structures, operational processes, and measurement procedures—setting targets, measuring performance, and giving financial and nonfinancial rewards— encourage the new thinking and behaviors. Skills Embracing attitudinal and behavioral changes means individuals must have or acquire certain skills. Change needs to be broken into segments with time between the segments for employees to reflect, experiment, and apply the new concepts. When they are given the chance to describe to others how they are adapting to the changes, they embrace the change more enthusiastically and completely.
Role Models Benjamin Spock, the well-known pediatrician, concluded that consistent, positive role models are the decisive factor in the development of children. Research shows that this remains true in most social circumstances, including work. Employees typically model their behaviors after those in positions of influence. If they determine that the decision will be made collaboratively, they must next decide the extent of collaboration. The converse, of course, is also true. However, there are very real advantages and disadvantages to involving employees in the decision-making process.
Involving employees increases the likelihood that more of the major issues affecting employees will surface and be addressed. They care more about the outcome and will work more diligently to bring the decision to fruition. Also, because they understand the rationale underlying the decision, as its implementation unfolds the employees are able to propose alternatives that can avert unplanned and unwanted outcomes.
When they are involved in making the decision, employees are much more willing to accept it. Although this seems self-evident, when problems arise the solutions are often the decisions of those removed from the situation. When employees are included in such decisions, the results are almost always universally improved. This kind of participation in the decisionmaking process takes considerably more time than making a decision unilaterally.
Matching Decision-Making Strategies with the Decision at Hand Including or not including employees in making decisions can be resolved by the relative importance of the preceding advantages and disadvantages to the decision at hand. Decisions requiring immediate attention may preclude managers from including their subordinates, as might decisions not impacting them.
Managers have essentially seven decision-making strategies under five classifications from which to choose: autocratic, consultative, negotiation, autonomous, or collaborative decision making. Table 4. Choosing the most effective strategy for decision making requires that managers carefully scrutinize the conditions surrounding the problem or issue. In the following exercise, we list questions that managers can use to settle on the decision-making strategy to employ.
Of course, the time available plays a critical role in determining those strategies that are viable options. When considering their options, managers need to realize that the greater the degree of employee involvement in decision making the longer the time obligation. Decision-Making Questions for Managerial Consideration 1.
Is the problem or issue well defined? If yes, proceed to next question. If no, clarify the problem or issue. Does the decision require a high level of expertise to make a viable solution? Do I have the necessary expertise to make the decision independently? Do my subordinates have sufficient information or background to make this decision?
Will my subordinates be affected by this decision? If I make the decision independently, will my subordinates accept and support it? Will I be able to independently anticipate and address all the outcomes resulting from the decision? Am I jeopardizing an open, trusting, and respectful culture if my subordinates are not included in this decision? Are there legal considerations to the decision? As managers begin answering these questions, the decision-making strategies that could prove most advantageous to the decision at hand emerge.
For example, if the answer to question 3—Do I have the necessary expertise? The experts can be consulted, given the assignment autonomously, or worked with collaboratively. Contingent on the answers to the questions in the exercise, Table 4. Note: Table 4. Manager solves problem or makes decision herself, using the information available at the time. Manager obtains information needed from subordinates, then makes decision independently.
Manager shares the problem or issue with relevant subordinates individually, asking for their ideas and suggestions without bringing them together as a group. Manager shares the problem or issue with subordinates in a group wherein subordinates share ideas and suggestions. Manager delegates to either individual employees or work groups responsibility for making the decision or portions of it.
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Manager shares the problem or issue with all subordinates as a group. Group generates and evaluates options and reaches consensus agreement on a solution. Manager serves as facilitator, coordinating the discussion, keeping it focused on the problem, and ensuring that all critical issues are discussed. When managers delegate all the detailed planning to group members for managing in their own way, by default the group becomes an autonomous entity with political implications. Does decision require expertise? Do I have the necessary expertise? Do subordinates have the expertise?
Are subordinates affected? Will subordinates accept and support it? Can I independently address outcomes? Am I jeopardizing the culture? Are there legal considerations? Will employee morale suffer? In some cases, the most appropriate decision-making strategy is readily apparent; in others, managers need to weigh the pros and cons of including versus not including employees. Thus, negotiation would only be used in certain cases, for example, contract renewals, arbitration, or court-ordered mediation.
Facilitators need to implement a systematic way of reaching a group decision that every member endorses and is willing to practice. Usually, when they understand the method they are using, employees are better able to focus their efforts. We suggest introducing the following five-step process to employees at their initial meeting: 1.
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Define the decision. Determine the boundaries within which the decision is to be made. Choose who makes the decision. Determine the criteria the decision must meet. Make the decision. Defining the decision begins the decision making. Establishing clarity about what the decision actually entails is key to reaching a proper response. Boundaries may be helpful to or may hinder the decision-making process; they must be carefully articulated and examined for their individual and collective impact.
Choosing who will make the decision can be determined next. Even in collaborative decision making, not all employees need to be involved. Time may be a constraint and may dictate that some employees work on one decision aspect while other employees tackle another. Regardless of who makes the decision, however, the full group must agree to stand behind it.
Determining the criteria that the decision must meet is the fourth step. These criteria could include desired level of quality, outcomes that have to be addressed, and other such standards. When established criteria are unambiguous, the decision is more likely to produce an effective outcome. Making the decision is the final step. Decisions are made by setting a deadline and choosing the most appropriate decision-making techniques we discuss possible decision-making techniques later in this chapter.
Who will make the decision? What conditions must be met by the decision? What criteria will be used to make the decision? Who is affected by the decision? What is the deadline for the decision? What decision-making strategies will be used? What is the final decision? How will it be announced? What are the next steps? Selecting and Using Decision-Making Techniques When facilitating collaborative decision making, there are a number of techniques available for engaging employees in the process and eliciting their thoughts and ideas.
The techniques can be used together or separately, depending on the nature of the decision and the extent of employee involvement. The techniques—Brainstorming, Outlining, Prioritizing, Listing Pros and Cons, Voting, and Achieving Consensus—are common methods used by facilitators across a variety of situations. Facilitating Collaborative Problem Solving Managers are continuously confronted with problems needing resolution.
Similar to decision making, employees may or may not be involved in the problem-solving process depending on the prevailing circumstances. When employees do participate, managers can facilitate systematic problem solving by initiating the following approach. This approach is also applicable when managers assume sole responsibility for solving the problem. It is a great technique for helping groups discover flaws, inconsistencies, or other trouble spots in a system.
It can be used with groups or individually. Beyond problem solving, gap analysis is also a great strategy for improving customer service, streamlining operating processes, enhancing the quality of goods and services, and addressing other strategic goals. All of this information is certainly important to successful decision making, but it is only part of the picture. Prioritizing allows the group to distinguish those actions that are more important to the decision than others and determine what needs to be done first before other contingent actions can be completed.
It also keeps track of related items that have emerged in discussions but were determined not to be of immediate concern. They listen, capture, absorb, and implement experimentation and new ideas directed toward continuously improving customer service. Creating these lists for each option can illustrate to the group what they might expect when they begin the selection process. Lists can also assist the group in identifying those aspects of a decision that are more important than others.
They spend time with their customers or employees , listening to their problems, issues, and grievances. They consistently look for ways to forge new and more robust connections with the people that the organization will be counting on in the future. They know that decisions made narrowly—on a strictly economic or situational basis—may realize short-term success, but at the sacrifice of long-term organizational goals.
Such decisions put the company in the position of being able to realize immediate profit but not to build and sustain relations with customers. What makes for a successful company is one that strikes a chord with people, sparks their imagination or elevates itself into some kind of special position with its customers. It is also useful as the group gets closer to making the final decision by eliminating options with the least amount of group support. Once discussion is exhausted, each member is asked the questions again.
Who do I ask to provide input? What are the organizational expectations? How will my subordinates be affected? In this chapter, we suggested ways managers can analyze decisionmaking and problem-solving situations, and based on their analyses can select an appropriate decision-making or problem-resolution strategy. We discussed the advantages and disadvantages of making decisions collaboratively and provided methods of facilitating group decisions and problem resolution. We also introduced some techniques that facilitators can use with groups to focus, clarify, guide, and refine their decision-making efforts.
Remain genuinely interested in the welfare of their employees. Intend to do the right thing for the right reasons for as many organizational constituents as possible. Keeping these attributes at the forefront of their mind, these managers epitomize solid, insightful judgment. They must assume responsibility for putting in place conditions that are most apt to making transitions smooth for their subordinates.
Managers have myriad decision-making strategies from which to choose, depending on the circumstances around the decision. Managers need to consider carefully time constraints before committing to involve employees in decision making. Group members are able to focus their efforts more efficiently when they are oriented to and adopt a methodical process. Also, the resulting decision is of higher quality, as most decision-making systems include all key decisionmaking steps. To what extent do I analyze the conditions surrounding decisions or problems before making or determining how to make the decisions?
To what extent are the conditions that facilitate change in place in my area? In the overall organization? What are some of the lessons I can learn from my previous decisionmaking efforts?
What would I do differently? What would I do the same? What are some facilitation techniques I would use when facilitating collaborative decision making or problem solving? What additional information or skills do I need to facilitate collaborative decision making or problem solving?
While this statistic may seem discouraging at first blush, conflict is not always negative. We will examine the sources of conflict in organizations and note how conflicts develop. Additionally, we highlight strategies for managing conflict that can increase the odds of conflict generating positive results. Real communication happens when we are as interested in learning about the other person as we are about expressing our perspectives, feelings, and needs. How willing are we to assume accountability for our actions? What role do we play in communication problems? What do we need to do differently to build trust within the workplace?
What changes do we need to make to promote effective communication? The secret is honesty with ourselves as we ask and answer these types of questions. Practicing Empathy Developing empathy is critical for managers, particularly when facilitating conflicts. Empathy requires authentic interest in and concern about others—it is genuinely trying to see the world as the person with whom you are communicating sees it.
If you do not truly want to understand these feelings, if you are insincere, empathy will not occur. Be sensitive to instances when expressed thoughts and feelings are not congruent. Tune into nonverbal cues—body language, eye contact and so on—as well as verbal ones. Statements of facts are often misleading, hiding the real message. Be open to exploring negative feedback. Yet good listening is the single most important communication attribute.
When people are listened to, they feel that they matter, are important, have value, have important ideas and contributions, and are empowered. It assumes that listening is not a passive activity; rather it requires centering considerable energy on the speaker. When you are actively listening to someone, absorbing their point of view and honestly taking it into consideration, you are setting the groundwork for both their and your needs to be expressed and understood. Measuring Effective Communication Beyond active listening, opening the lines for effective communication can be promoted by adopting some additional strategies and skills.
One way to learn positive communication skills is by paying attention to what makes a good communicator. What did you say? What did they say? Observe the habits of those who seem to be exceptional communicators— people who make themselves understood and seem to understand the needs, experiences, and feelings of those around them.
Because communication is the essence of social interaction—it influences what others think about you and how well they understand you—it determines to a large degree your self-esteem, assertiveness, and social adjustment. No manager, particularly when facilitating any type of activity, can afford poor communication skills.
Additionally, the assessment includes essential skills for communicating effectively and can thus help pinpoint communication strengths and weaknesses. Problems in Interpersonal Communication In organizations as in most other aspects of life , interpersonal communication problems occur for a number of reasons. Typically, however, the underlying causes can be attributed to six factors: defensiveness, inarticulateness, hidden agendas, status, environment, and hostility. Most people have defenses that protect and prevent them from receiving information they fear.
Issues that impact values, assumptions, or self-image may be particularly difficult to address; thus defensiveness comes into play.
Project Manager as Facilitator | Project Management Essentials
Misunderstandings can arise when message senders are unable to express themselves clearly. If message receivers are unaware of this problem, they may jump to inaccurate assumptions and conclusions. When people have motives they prefer not to reveal, they may send deceptive messages. These senders seek to keep an advantage by keeping the real reasons hidden. Over time, these behaviors cause low trust and cooperation. Positional authority can distort communications. When speaking to their superiors, those in subordinate positions may craft messages to impress or not offend.
The physical space wherein communicating takes place has a strong influence on outcomes. Informal messages that take place in highly formal surroundings and vice versa can throw off the communication process. Physical barriers such as desks placed between individuals can close off feelings and thwart attempts at mutual understanding.
When trust is low and people are angry, whatever the sender actually expresses will likely be misinterpreted. How managers define conflict is critical to how it is received. That is to say, if managers sincerely believe that conflict is a healthy expression of individuals who care about their work, those in conflict are more likely to use it to create synergy. When conflict is facilitated well, employees come to understand that the purpose of conflict is to manifest differences that are integral to their achieving the best possible outcomes.
Although we are addressing conflicts between individuals or between groups in this chapter because this is where most organizational conflicts of any consequence occur , conflicts take place at all organizational levels. For example, two different organizations may clash, as might different units within the same organization.
Interpersonal conflicts often develop because of individual differences, such as differences in values, attitudes, beliefs, needs, and perceptions. Conflicts also occur when there are misunderstandings or communication errors that subsequently lead individuals to perceive that there are differences in values, attitudes, beliefs, or needs. Regardless of the reasons for the conflict, conflicts typically follow a sequence of four stages.
Neither party senses a conflict, but individual or group differences or organizational structures are creating conflict conditions. When the conflict materializes and is acknowledged by one or more of the parties, it moves into the second stage. In this stage, individuals become aware of the differences and often react emotionally. Emotional reactions can range from anger and hostility to frustration, anxiety, and pain, or a combination of these feelings. The conflict becomes overt, and individuals shift toward escalation or resolution.
Actions to resolve the conflict usually require both parties to take a positive problem solving approach so that their needs and concerns are heard and addressed. The fourth and final stage of conflict is the outcome and aftermath. Actions in the third stage have a direct bearing on whether the outcomes are healthy or unhealthy.
Healthy outcomes are those that leave the participating parties with a clearer understanding of the underlying sources of the conflict, an improved decision-making process, increased attention to the needs and concerns of others, and more positive working relationships overall. Unhealthy outcomes include continued anger and hostility, reduced communication, lower employee morale, and other negative conditions.
Conflicts with unhealthy outcomes often mushroom, setting the stage for future or ongoing conflicts that are more complicated and difficult to resolve. Most of us have been taught that conflict is negative, particularly in the workplace. At work, prevailing sentiment is that openly expressing conflict is a sure sign of inadequate social skills or poorly functioning work groups. Consequently, when responding to conflict, people run the gamut from avoiding it at all costs to actively fueling it. Initially, facilitators need to examine their perspectives and feelings about conflict.
Although individuals are capable of using any of the approaches, they most commonly use the ones they prefer. Typically, individuals do not make conscious choices about their conflict approach; rather it is involuntary, a force of habit. The key is to understand that there are multiple approaches and consciously make the decision to use the approach that is most productive in any given situation. Having the flexibility to identify, choose, and move among the five methods gives facilitators a powerful tool for interacting with groups. Helping group members learn about and use the various approaches expands their capacity to handle conflict and gives them a common language in discussions.
The different approaches to conflict—Avoiding, Competing, Accommodating, Compromising, and Collaborating—can be represented along the two dimensions of agreement and power. As you will note in Figure 5. The five approaches represent very different ways to manage conflict.
Nonconfrontational strategies include avoiding and accommodating, controlling strategies reflect competing, and more solution-oriented strategies are found in collaborating and compromising. Avoiding approach. When individuals realize there is a conflict but do not confront it, they are using the avoiding approach. Competing approach. The competing approach is when individuals work only to achieve their own goals.
Although there are instances where quick, decisive action is necessary and competing is appropriate, competing often leads to unhealthy outcomes. Competing behaviors establish a win-lose confrontation where there are clear winners and losers. Because competing is an obvious use of force, some employees can be intimated by those who are more forceful.
Generally, this causes a buildup of resentment and a breakdown in communication. Accommodating approach. Accommodating is the converse of competing. Compromising approach. Compromising is considered a solutionoriented strategy. An underlying assumption of compromising is that there is a fixed amount of something that precludes either party from getting all it wants; something must be split through compromise so that neither party loses.
However, because neither party actually wins, some people remain focused on what they had to give up in order to get what they wanted. Collaborating approach. Although similar to compromising in that individuals are concerned with their own interests and needs as well as those of the other party, collaborating has no assumption of fixed resources. No one is forced to give up something to gain something else. The assumption in collaborating is that by openly, honestly, and constructively addressing the problem, a solution will be found that will satisfy everyone and where everyone wins.
Clearly this approach has multiple advantages to cohesion, morale, esprit de corps, trust, and so on; however, when time is short, collaboration may not be possible as it is usually time consuming. In Table 5. The ultimate choice, of course, will be that of the manager who is most familiar with the myriad variables surrounding conflict. The extent to which resolution is achieved successfully is largely dependent on the skills of the facilitator.
When facilitators model resolution skills—sensitivity, openness, integrity, and sincerity—in their communications and interactions, they increase the likelihood that others will carry out these traits as well. We include a conflict-resolution process that we have used successfully in our experiences both as managers within organizations and as consultants to organizations dealing with conflict. Table 5. These principles are nonnegotiable; facilitators must believe in and practice them throughout the entire facilitation process.
The conflict-resolution process has seven steps. Prepare for resolution. Clarify perceptions. Focus on individual and shared needs. Learn from the past and move on. Generate options. Evaluate options. Make mutual-benefit agreements. Prepare for Resolution. Creating an effective environment—the qualities you project as well as the space used—is very important for conflict resolution. Do all that you can to practice and project a positive attitude. Keep the conflict resolution underlying principles in the forefront of your mind and commit to approaching issues honestly and openly.
Locate and absorb as much information as you can about the conflict, particularly factual data. Be careful to remain as unbiased as possible by discouraging others from sharing their opinions about the conflict with you. Choose a time that is best for all parties involved. Where you meet is very important. If possible, pick a place where all parties can feel comfortable and at ease.
Begin with positive statements; good openings are ones that let others know you are ready and willing to approach conflict with a team-like attitude that focuses on positive ends. Share the resolution process with the group, letting them know what to expect and eliciting their agreement to use the process. Set ground rules for example, courtesy, respectful comments, judging the action rather than the person. Ask each party to carefully describe their perceptions of the conflict.
Ask each side to refrain from comment and to listen carefully to what the other side is saying. Ensure that all parties are able to present their perspectives without interruption. If necessary, remind everyone about the ground rules to avoid any inflammatory behaviors. Stay focused on the current matter by avoiding distracting and unrelated side issues. At this point, the facilitator may be challenged to keep the conversations on target.
Help the parties illuminate what values and feelings are involved. Focus on Individual and Shared Needs. Ensure that all parties have expressed all their concerns, values, and needs around the conflict. Highlight those matters that are shared among all parties; this is often the point when all participants realize that they share common needs, values, and concerns. Learn from the Past and Move On. At this point, facilitators may be faced with a decision—to continue with the current conflict or go back and resolve past differences.
If the current resolution process gets bogged down and all facilitation attempts to move the process forward fail, participants would probably benefit from addressing past unresolved issues. Only after the past has been attended to satisfactorily can participants re-engage in the current resolution proceedings.
During this phase, participants are encouraged to generate viable solutions.
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