Christmas biscuits Christmas gifts Festive desserts Vegetarian Christmas see more Home Recipes Not sure what to cook? Inspire me. How much water do I need to cook pasta? How do you cook 'al dente' pasta? The first step is to make sure you have plenty of water in your pan. Use a large, high sided saucepan and add at least ml, or up to 1 litre of water per g dried pasta depending on the capacity of your pan.
Bring the pan of water to the boil then add your pasta. After about 8 mins of boiling carefully fish a piece or strand of pasta out of the pan, allow it to cool and taste it.
Most dried ribbons of pasta such as linguine, spaghetti and tagliatelle take between mins. Shorter, thicker pasta shapes like bows or penne take mins and fresh pasta such as ravioli and tortellini will be done between mins. Once the pasta is cooked you need to take it out of the water and allow it to steam dry for a minute or two before mixing it with any sauce or dressing.
If the sauce you want to use is too thick, reserve a little of the pasta water to thin it down with. Get more recipe inspiration Easiest ever one-pan pasta How to make simple seafood pasta Our ultimate pasta collection What's your favourite way to serve pasta?
How to cook pasta | BBC Good Food
Be the first to ask a question about this recipe Unsure about the cooking time or want to swap an ingredient? Sign in or create your My Good Food account to join the discussion. Be the first to suggest a tip for this recipe Got your own twist on this recipe? Or do you have suggestions for possible swaps and additions? The final step is cooling the product via cold air or water to maintain its flavour. Different manufacturers will label their products accordingly with all the necessary nutritional and other legal information as required.
The following table compares the nutritional value of ketchup with raw ripe tomatoes and salsa , based on information from the USDA Food Nutrient Database. Commercial tomato ketchup has an additive, usually xanthan gum , which gives the condiment a pseudoplastic or "shear thinning" property - more commonly known as thixotropic. This increases the viscosity of the ketchup considerably with a relatively small amount added—usually 0.
However, the shear thinning property of the gum ensures that when a force is applied to the ketchup it will lower the viscosity enabling the sauce to flow. A common method to getting ketchup out of the bottle involves inverting the bottle and shaking it or hitting the bottom with the heel of the hand, which causes the ketchup to flow rapidly.
A technique involves inverting the bottle and forcefully tapping its upper neck with two fingers index and middle finger together. Specifically, with a Heinz ketchup glass bottle, one taps the 57 circle on the neck. This helps the ketchup flow by applying the correct shearing force.
The faster the ketchup is sheared by shaking or tapping the bottle , the more fluid it becomes. After the shear is removed the ketchup thickens to its original viscosity. Ketchup is a non-Newtonian fluid meaning that its viscosity changes under stress and is not constant. It is a shear thinning fluid which means its viscosity decreases with increased shear stress. This equation represents apparent viscosity where apparent viscosity is the shear stress divided by shear rate.
Viscosity is dependent on stress. Its viscosity decreased with stress. The molecular composition of ketchup is what creates ketchup's pseudoplastic characteristics. Small polysaccharides, sugars, acids, and water make up the majority of the metastable ketchup product, and these small structures are able to move more easily throughout a matrix because of their low mass. While exposed to shear stress, the molecules within the suspension are able to respond quickly and create an alignment within the product. Hydrogen bonds are constantly rearranging within a product due to their need to be in the lowest energy state, which further confirms that the bonds between the molecules will be easily disrupted.
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This alignment only lasts for as long as shear stress is applied. The molecules return to their original disorganized state once the shear stress dissipates. In , researchers at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology reported the development of a bottle coating that allowed all the product to slip out without leaving a residue. Ketchup is one of the many products that is leachable; meaning that the water within the product migrates together as the larger molecules within the product sediment, ultimately causing water to separate out.
This forms a layer of water on top of the ketchup due to the molecular instability within the product. Pectin is a polysaccharide within tomatoes that has the ability to bind to itself and to other molecules, especially water, around it. This enables it to create a gel-like matrix, dependent on the amount within the solution. In order for the water within the ketchup to be at the lowest possible energy state, all of the hydrogen bonds that are able to be made within the matrix must be made.
This concept implies that water will more favorably bind with itself because of the increased disorder between water molecules. This is partially the cause for water leaching out of solution when left undisturbed for a short period of time.
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Other interactions that induce leaching are electrostatic and ionic interactions. Electrostatic interactions occur between charged molecules, which have repulsive or attractive forces between each other. The pectin within ketchup will have negative and neutral charges along the molecule due to the hydroxyl groups and relative pH, which is 3. Acetic acid within vinegar also has hydroxyl groups that will have a dispersed amount of negative and neutral charges along each molecule. The acetic acid and pectin will display repulsive interactions between the negatively charged oxygens on each molecule.
The hydroxyls on each molecule will be able to form hydrogen bonds with the water in the product.
The addition of salt will reduce the repulsive interactions between the negatively charged side chains of acetic acid and pectin within solution because they will create bonds with the dissociated sodium and chloride ions. A way for ketchup manufacturing companies to avoid leaching of their products would be to add a hydrocolloid. Xanthan gum is able to stabilize ketchup by covalently binding to water. This strong bond keeps water from separating out of the ketchup and creating a layer at the surface.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Ketchup disambiguation.
For catchup television, see Streaming television. Food energy per serving. Main article: Mushroom ketchup. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. February Learn how and when to remove this template message. Food portal. University of South Carolina Press. Retrieved October 1, July 20, Retrieved March 15, National Public Radio. Retrieved 3 September Made how. Retrieved May 27, The Ecologist. Retrieved July 8, David Retrieved The Language of Food. Retrieved November 10, Retrieved August 26, Retrieved January 27, Univ of South Carolina Press.
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