All that is known, with even the least degree of certainty, is that a man named Arthur, or Arturus, led a band of heroic warriors who spearheaded the resistance of Britons against the invading Saxons, Jutes, and others from the north of Europe, sometime in the fifth and sixth centuries AD. Whatever the truth — and we may never know for sure — the adventures of the legendary King Arthur, with his Round Table Fellowship of Knights based in the mythical city of Camelot, were told and retold between the 11th and 15th centuries in hundreds of manuscripts in at least a dozen languages.
The Round Table is the centerpiece of the Arthurian world.
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According to the 13th-century poet Layamon, Arthur ordered the table to be built for him by a famous Cornish carpenter, who somehow made the table capable of seating 1, men clearly an exaggeration , yet easily portable to wherever Arthur set up his mobile base of operations. Some knights were said to have sat at the Round Table. When they had largely rid the land of monsters, dragons, and evil customs, the knights undertook their greatest task of all — the quest for the Holy Grail.
Many did not return. Many faery women thread together the stories of Arthur and his knights. This is probably because a good number of the stories originated not in Britain, but in Brittany — or, as it was known then, Armorica or Aermorica, where belief in ancient deities and the faery race lived on.
These faery tales became interwoven with stories of chivalry beloved by the courtly circle. Within the courtly circle these stories were told by roving troubadours — poets who learned dozens of Arthurian tales by heart. In c Geoffrey of Monmouth named nine sisters in his Vita Merlini as the rulers of the enchanted island of Avalon. Though this may sound odd to us today, many of the women in enclosed orders were learned, and since learning was frequently equated with magic, thus Morgan came to be considered a sorceress.
All knights of the Round Table are said to have gone forth in search of the sacred vessel after it appeared at Camelot during Pentecost [a feast celebrated each year on the 50th day after the Great and Holy Feast of Pascha Easter and 10 days after the Feast of the Ascension of Christ]. Of those who went forth only three succeeded in their quest to find the grail: the saintly knight Sir Galahad, the simple Sir Percival, and the honest, plain-spoken Sir Bors.
Love stories feature a great deal in the Arthurian world. But another story, originating in France, became one of the best known of the Arthurian tales: the love story of Lancelot and Guinevere. But Lancelot hesitates for a moment, and when Guinevere learns of this this later on she spurns him as not worthy of her affections.
With the king reluctantly forced to attack Lancelot, the way was left open for Mordred to attack Camelot. War broke out after Lancelot staged an armed rescue of Guinevere, condemned to death for her treasonous love for the great knight. With the hasty return of the true king to Britain, a final battle took place at Camlann. Here, he entered the Main Pedagogical Institute , a teacher training institute from where his father had also graduated. Dmitri graduated with a gold medal in After briefly occupying a teaching position at Simferopol in Crimea, Dmitri returned to St.
Petersburg for his study of silicates , in , at the age of He won an award to go to Western Europe to pursue chemical research. He stayed in Europe for two years from to , spending most of his time at the University of Heidelberg in Germany. After his time in Europe, Mendeleev believed that Russia was trailing behind in the science of chemistry. In , he published his textbook Organic Chemistry which won him the prestigious Demidov Prize and put him at the forefront of Russian chemical education.
He was one of the founders , in , of the Russian Chemical Society. His renowned work The Principles of Chemistry , was published in two volumes — It became the definitive textbook on the subjec t and was widely translated. By , Mendeleev had transformed St. Petersburg into an internationally recognized center for research in chemistry. In , while preparing the second volume of The Principles of Chemistry, Mendeleev attempted to classify the elements according to their chemical properties and noticed patterns. He wrote the name of all the known elements with their fundamental properties, including atomic weight , on cards.
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He noticed that the behavior of elements seemed to repeat as their atomic weights increased. The legend goes that, while trying to figure out a pattern he fell asleep at his desk and when he awoke, he knew the complete arrangement of the elements. It is proposed that his subconscious mind did the trick for him.
Mendeleev did claim the dream story according to certain sources but other sources regard it as untrue. On 6 March , Dmitri Mendeleev made a presentation to the Russian Chemical Society in which he stated his periodic law , which states that when e lements are ordered according to their atomic weights, certain properties of elements repeat periodically. Mendeleev was not the first to arrange the elements according to their atomic weights, neither was he the first to notice periodicity of elements.
However, he was the first to publish a periodic table that closely resembles the modern one and more importantly, it was his efforts that popularized the Periodic Table. Mendeleev made two spectacular predictions. Firstly, he put the elements in their correct places despite some atomic weights being incorrect at the time and rightly predicted that these atomic weights had been measured incorrectly.
Secondly, he left gaps in his periodic table for elements which were not yet discovered and predicted the properties of these elements.
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The Periodic Table gained acceptance in the scientific community in the following two decades with three elements predicted by Mendeleev being discovered with properties closely matching what he had predicted. It is due to these contributions that Dmitri Mendeleev is considered the Father of the Periodic Table. Panini is considered by some as the father of linguistics. Mendeleev named the missing elements in his Periodic Table with the prefixes of eka, dvi and tri Sanskrit one, two, three to honor Sanskrit grammarians, like Panini, of ancient India.
Like, he referred to scandium and gallium as eka-boron and eka-aluminium. Apart from the Periodic Table, other achievements of Mendeleev include important contributions in determining the nature of solutions , introducing the metric system in Russia, defining the critical temperature of a gas and inventing a smokeless powder named pyrocollodion. The couple had two children , a boy named Volodya and a daughter named Olga. He began courting her and in , he proposed to her, threatening to commit suicide if she refused.
Russian Orthodox Church required at least seven years before lawful remarriage but Mendeleev violated the prohibition to a great deal of public uproar. The couple had four children , Liubov, Ivan, and twins Vassili and Maria. Mendeleev had a great interest in shipbuilding and wrote over 40 scientific papers on the subject.
Related The Battle for Childhood: Creation of a Russian Myth
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