The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913

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2. Examining Humboldt’s Writings: Contours, Scope, and Categories

The venerable Bishops A. McDonell, R. Gaulin, Power, Guiges, O. They found very able helpers in the various religious communities of women, and in the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools. Many sincerely Christian persons among the laity also devoted themselves to the cause of Catholic education in the province. Among the earliest and most remarkable may be mentioned, at Toronto, J. Harvey and J.

Seyers; at Ottawa, Dr. The Catholic schools have become numerous and powerful. Their organization, from the points of view of studies, discipline, and regular attendance of pupils, is better than that of all other institutions of the same class in the province. Many years have already elapsed since in the cities, villages, and other parts of the country, long opened up to colonization, the old square-timber school-houses were replaced by splendid buildings of brick or stone.

The architecture of these schools is simple and beautiful; the systems of ventilation, lighting, and heating are excellent; the installation of suitable school furniture and accessories is almost complete. This progress is very evident, even in centres of colonization. The school trustees make it a point of honour to put up school buildings which are beautiful and spacious, and which leave nothing to be desired in ventilation, lighting, and heating.

The Catholic schools of Ontario are called separate schools. They do separate, in fact, for school purposes, the Catholic minority from the Protestant majority. They make it possible for Catholics to withdraw their children from the public or common schools, which are by law Protestant.

Nevertheless, there are some public schools which are really Catholic; these exist in localities exclusively or almost exclusively Catholic. Separate schools were granted in , when the Provinces of Upper and Lower Canada were united. Wishing to secure for their co-religionists in Lower Canada exemption from the obligation of sending their children to the Catholic schools common schools in that province , and of paying taxes for the support of said schools, the Protestants of Ontario and Quebec proposed to establish a system of dissident or separate schools.

What they claimed for the Protestants of Lower Canada they had to bind themselves in strict justice to grant to the Catholics of Upper Canada. The principle of separate schools, Catholic in Ontario and Protestant in Quebec, received the royal sanction on 18 September, This fundamental law had been discussed by a committee of the Legislative Assembly in which Lower Canada was represented by fifteen members and Upper Canada by eight. This law authorized dissidents from the common schools, on giving notice to the clerk of the district council, to pay their school taxes for the support of separate schools, and to receive a share of the government grants for education in proportion to their number.

The same law authorized the election by the people of trustees for the administration of separate schools. The governor was authorized to nominate in each city a board of examiners composed of an equal number of Catholics and Protestants. The Catholics of Ontario obtained the privilege of establishing a separate board for the examination of candidates wishing to teach in their schools; a clause in this fundamental law exempted the Brothers of the Christian Schools from submitting to examination by this board.

From to , at almost every session of the Legislature, the Ontario Protestants proposed amendments to the act establishing separate schools. These amendments tended, for the most part, to render the existence of separate schools in Ontario so precarious that they would die out of themselves. The desired privileges for the Protestants of Lower Canada had been obtained; it was well known that these privileges would always be respected by the Catholic majority of Quebec; now, they thought, it would be safe to deliver the attacks of unenlightened fanaticism against the separate schools of Upper Canada.

Cost what it might, the cry was raised for a single school system for the whole of Upper Canada—a common, public, or national school system. While constantly professing motives of the purest justice and common interest, the Protestant Province of Upper Canada has continually sullied its reputation for fairness by setting an example of fanaticism, narrow-mindedness, and intolerance towards Catholic schools, whilst Lower Canada, a Catholic province, has been a model of perfect justice and toleration. On 27 February, , a Catholic deputy, R. Scott, presented for the fourth time a new law to govern the separate schools.

This law was adopted, thanks to the generous aid given by the French Canadian deputies, mostly from Lower Canada. The Upper Canadian majority voted against the bill, but all the members from Quebec and twenty-one members from Upper Canada, among them several Protestants, were in its favour and carried the measure. This law, enacted in , was maintained at the time of the confederation of the provinces in ; it still governs to-day the Catholic separate schools of Ontario.

Yet it is far from giving to the Catholics of that province liberties equal to those enjoyed by the Protestant minority of Quebec. It recognizes the Catholic separate schools for primary education only. Secondary or superior education in Ontario is Protestant. The Catholics have their academies, convents, colleges, and universities, but these are independent schools, supported by the voluntary contributions of Catholics who have also to contribute, on the same footing as Protestants, to the support of the government high schools, collegiate institutes, and universities.

It refuses to separate schools the right to a share of the taxes paid by public-utility companies, such as railway, tramway and telephone companies, banks, etc. It withholds from the trustees of separate schools the right of expropriation in order to secure more fitting localities for their schools. It refuses to the Protestant father of a Catholic family the right to pay his taxes towards the support of Catholic schools.

It allows Catholics the option of paying their taxes to support the public schools. As the rate of taxation for separate schools is generally higher than that for public schools, owing to the large number of children in families of the Catholic minority, and to the abstention of large business concerns from contributing the least support to the separate schools, it follows that many Catholics, more or less sincere, avoid the higher rate and pay their taxes towards the support of the public, or Protestant, schools. The separate schools are administered, as by a court of final jurisdiction, by the Education Department at Toronto, in which Catholics are not represented.

The board of trustees has likewise the right to impose the teaching in French or German of reading, spelling and literature, as provided for by the regulations of the Education Department, page 9, article 15, year The French Canadians, availing themselves of this right, have the French language taught in schools, frequented almost entirely by their children. The Government has named three French Canadian inspectors for these schools, called bilingual.

The teachers of these schools are trained in two public bilingual training-schools, one at Sturgeon Falls and the other at Ottawa, founded and supported by the Government, and directed by Catholic principals. The certificates issued by these schools give the right to teach in the bilingual schools for five years only. The Government makes a yearly grant to both Catholic and public schools, the amount being calculated upon the value of the schoolhouse, the excellence of its furnishings, the certificates and salaries of the teachers, and the attendance of the children.

The statistics for , taken from the Report of the Minister of Education, are as follows:. The Catholic colleges for boys are: in the Diocese of Toronto, that of the Basilian Fathers, founded in , 15 professors, students; in the Diocese of London, Basilian Fathers, founded , 37 professors, students; Diocese of Hamilton, Fathers of the Resurrection, founded , 11 professors, students; Diocese of Kingston, secular clergy, founded , 4 professors, 85 students. The Brothers of the Christian Schools conduct an academy with 14 teachers and pupils. Joseph, 1, pupils; Sisters of Loretto, 4, 78 teachers, pupils; Grey Nuns of the Cross, 2, 35 teachers, pupils; Christian Brothers, 1, 14 teachers, pupils.

Other convent schools are those of the Sisters of St. Joseph seven schools, 74 teachers, pupils ; Sisters of Loretto two schools, 30 teachers, pupils ; Grey Nuns of the Cross one school, 6 teachers, pupils ; Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary one school, founded in ; Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame one school, 29 teachers, pupils. There are three industrial schools under the care of religious institutes: the Brothers of the Christian Schools 8 teachers, 95 pupils ; Daughters of the Immaculate Heart of Mary 10 teachers, pupils ; Sisters of St. Joseph 10 teachers, 65 pupils.

The nine orphanages under the care of religious are: 2 under the Grey Nuns of the Cross, with orphans; 5 under the Sisters of St. Joseph, with orphans; 1 under the School Sisters of Notre Dame, with 54 orphans; 1 under the Sisters of Providence, with 85 orphans. The appended table of religious institutes engaged in teaching in Ontario at the present time is necessarily incomplete, reliable figures being unobtainable in many cases.

In such cases the figures have been omitted altogether, as approximate figures are liable to be misleading. With the introduction of Christianity, schools sprang up in the French colony even among the remotest tribes. The Recollects were the first schoolmasters of Canada.

Shortly afterwards the Jesuit Fathers followed them, teaching the children reading, writing, arithmetic, and catechism. In , a year after the arrival of the pioneer families in Canada, an elementary school was founded in Quebec. As colonists increased, primary schools sprang up. The boys' schools were at St. Proofs exist that there were in the city and district of Quebec 15 primary schools for boys; in the city and district of Montreal, 10; in the city and district of Three Rivers, 7.

Among the organizers were Mgr Laval and his seminary. Mgr de St-Vallier, his successor, encouraged elementary, secondary, and technical schools by every means in his power. In the district of Montreal the Sulpician Fathers founded several schools. Souart, superior of Montreal from to , took pride in styling himself the first schoolmaster of New France; all his brethren shared his zeal. In Brother Charon opened a school for boys at Pointe-aux Trembles, near Montreal, and took upon himself the charge of recruiting teachers for the country districts.

In investigating the history of the schools in pioneer days we invariably find as their founder or benefactor a bishop, a priest, a religious congregation, or a layman, himself a school-teacher or assisted by a teacher who travelled from one district to another. The education of the girls was as carefully attended to as that of the boys. The Ursulines built schools at Quebec and Three Rivers. Charlevoix says: "If to this day, there prevail in Canada so great a gentleness in the manners of all classes of society and so much charm in the intercourse of life, it is owing in great measure to the zeal of Marguerite Bourgeoys".

Twelve houses were opened by the Congregation of Notre Dame during the period of French rule. Specializing in teaching was not unknown at this epoch when existence itself was a struggle. There were schools of mathematics and hydrography at Montreal at the Jesuits and the Charon Brothers', art and trade schools at the seminary at Quebec, art and trade schools at St. Joachim, art and trade schools at the Charon Brothers. While defending the colony from the incursions of the Indians and fighting to retain their prior right of possession, the French not only established primary and special schools but founded and endowed secondary schools.

In 60, French Catholic colonists passed by right of conquest under British Protestant rule. The progress of the Catholic schools was greatly impeded. The Church, through her teaching communities and secular clergy, organized schools in the most important villages; but, unfortunately, a great number of parishes were without pastors. In the Legislature passed a law entitled "An Act to establish Free Schools", which provided for the establishment of a permanent corporation known as the Royal Institute. Thus the monopoly was given to the Church of England to establish and support English Protestant schools for a population almost entirely made up of French Catholics, Scattered over the country districts, in the midst of a mistrustful people, the schools of the Royal Institute were patronized by the English colonists only.

Twenty-four years after its foundation the Royal Institute had only 37 schools with pupils. On the other hand, parochial schools increased. A Catholic educational society was founded at Quebec to teach poor children and train teachers for country districts. Many other societies were formed in different parts of Canada for a similar purpose. The parishes were few that could not boast of fairly good schools. Private or independent schools increased more rapidly than the parish schools.

In the Legislature passed the Parochial School Act authorizing the pastors and church-wardens to appropriate a fourth part of the revenue of the parochial corporation for the support of the schools under their exclusive control. In there were no less than 14, children in these schools which were supported at the cost of much sacrifice by a poor and scattered population. Many other attempts were made to organize Catholic schools until, finally, in , a law was passed wherein were contained the principal provisions of the Educational Act as it exists in the Province of Quebec to-day.

This law, considerably augmented by that of , gave a great impetus to public instruction. In there were schools and 68, pupils. Owing to the influence of Dr. Meilleur, Superintendent of Catholic Schools of Quebec, education made rapid progress. Chaveau, his successor, continued to work with the same zeal. He established three primary denominational normal schools in Lower Canada, two for Catholics, who were in a great majority, the third for Protestants.

In Ontario, there was but one normal school, for the Protestant majority, who neglected to do justice to the Catholic minority, while Quebec gave to Protestants, who were in the minority, a separate normal school. The school organization of the Province of Quebec is now under the control of the Department of Public Instruction. The president, who is elected for life, is non-partisan in politics and bears the title of Superintendent of Education.

He is assisted by a French and an English secretary, who are charged with the administration of the affairs of their respective nationalities and co-religionists. The Council of Public Instruction is composed of highly esteemed members, chosen from the two religious denominations; they frame laws and rules relating to public instruction which are afterwards submitted to the sanction of the government. The Catholic committee includes as ex-officio members the archbishops, bishops or administrators of dioceses and Apostolic vicariates of the Province of Quebec, and a number of Catholic laymen.

The Protestant committee is composed of Protestant members equal in number to the laymen of the Catholic committee. Apart from these two committees, there are other members who do not form part of the Council of Public Instruction, but who have, in their respective committees, the same power as the members of the committees. These two committees, which sit independently, unite, under the presidency of the superintendent of education, when there are matters to discuss that interest both religious denominations.

All questions relating exclusively to Catholics or to Protestants are decided by their respective religious committees. The Province of Quebec is divided into school municipalities for the support of one or more schools. These municipalities are subdivided into school districts, and are entrusted to the commissioners or trustees elected by the taxpayers. In large cities, like Quebec and Montreal, the commissioners are named by the Government on the suggestion of the superintendent of education, the bishop of the diocese, and the city itself.

The commissioners are the local directors and real supervisors of the school; they have charge of the administration; they name the teachers; dispose of school property, purchase ground and build schoolhouses, impose and collect the school taxes and fees. Taxpayers who do not profess the same religious belief as the majority of the inhabitants in the municipality where they reside, have a right to a school commission of their own, composed of three members chosen from among their co-religionists. These members, called school trustees, represent the dissenting minority; they have the same privileges as the commissioners.

The administration of public schools is controlled by Catholic school inspectors for Catholic schools, and Protestant for non-Catholic schools. These functionaries are subject to the superintendent of education. There are also two general inspectors charged respectively with Catholic and Protestant normal schools. The first inspectors were named, in At present thirty-nine Catholic inspectors, under the supervision of a general inspector, visit the Catholic schools of the province.

The school revenues are obtained from government grants and local taxation, The operation of this law exhibits striking proof of the good faith and fairness of the Catholics, who constitute the great majority: they organize their schools, but never take advantage of their numbers to force Protestants to send their children to Catholic schools. All persons wishing to teach in public schools under the administration of school commissioners and trustees must obtain diplomas from a normal school or from the Central Board of Examiners.

Nevertheless, ministers of religion and members of religious communities of both sexes are exempt from these examinations. Members of teaching orders, after completing their course of studies, make a novitiate of two, three, or four years before receiving their "obedience".

This period of normal training exempts them from the examinations imposed on lay teachers by the Central Board of Examiners. Primary teaching comprises three degrees: the elementary course 4 years , the intermediate course 2 years , and the superior course 2 years. Schools of the first degree are called primary elementary; those of the second, model, or primary intermediate; those of the third, academic, or primary superior.

In the following table of statistics of elementary education in the Province of Quebec for the year , those schools which are subject to the provincial or the municipal Government are classed as "State"; the others, as "Independent".

The teaching congregations direct a large number of schools, independent or under the control of different school commissions. The Christian Brothers have 63 houses in Canada, 51 in the Province of Quebec, brothers and about 23, pupils. The following are the other teaching congregations of men: Clerks of St. Among the teaching congregations of women are: the Ursulines, with houses in the Dioceses of Quebec, Chicoutimi, Sherbrooke, and Rimouski.

It numbers professed sisters, novices, 45 postulants. The Sisters teach 34, pupils in 21 dioceses. Hyacinthe teach a great number of children. The Sisters of the Holy Names of Jesus and Mary have their mother-house at Montreal and houses both in Canada and in the United States; professed religious, ; novices, ; postulants, 81; establishments, 74; parochial schools, 32; pupils, 24, Joseph St.

Hyacinthe , Daughters of Wisdom, Sisters of St. Louis, Religious of St. Francis of Assisi. Many of these congregations have mother-houses in the Province of Quebec; they direct a great number of establishments and send missionaries to the other provinces of the Dominion and to the United States. There are thirteen art and trade schools in the principal centres of the Province of Quebec. During the school year there were 56 professors, boys. Besides the Agricultural Institute at Oka, affiliated to Laval University, and which is included in the scheme of superior education, there is an agricultural school in connexion with the College of St.

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There is a manual training and agricultural school for girls, under the direction of the Ursulines, at Roberval, Lake St. John district; another at St. Pascal, under the direction of the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame. Normal schools were founded in There are now ten; two for boys and eight for girls. Three normal schools for girls are soon to be opened, so that each diocese of the Province of Quebec will have its own normal school.

The pupils number ; the professors, There is one Catholic school for the blind boys and girls , the Nazareth Institute, directed by the Grey Nuns; fifty-five pupils follow the regular course, under the direction of five professors; many excel in music and in other subjects. The total number of pupils is , of whom 89 are instructed by the oral method, 46 by the written and manual alphabet. The work of teaching is carried on by 31 professors.

The two methods are in use, but the oral method is employed in instructing almost all the pupils. Former pupils, numbering , are engaged in manual labour in these asylums, receiving physical,intellectual,and moral care. The night-schools, numbering , have taught Catholic pupils. There are a certain number of industrial schools. The Brothers of Charity direct a reform school 30 religious, boarders. A great number of congregations are charged with the instruction of orphans; among the institutions may be mentioned the Orphan Asylum of Montfort, children, Huberdeau, All the principal cities have their kindergarten schools, which are not mentioned in the official reports.

They are due to private initiative and are organized by religious communities. There are 21 classical colleges at Quebec, 18 of which are affiliated with Laval University. They were founded by bishops, priests, or zealous laymen who understood the needs of the different phases of the national and religious existence.

Therein were fostered vocations to the priesthood and the liberal professions. These classical colleges have given Canada eminent men, both in Church and State, who, in the dark hours of its history, have preserved its faith and nationality; they have flourished and are still flourishing, thanks to the generosity of their founders and former pupils.

The accompanying table of the Catholic colleges of the Province of Quebec exhibits the dates of their respective foundations as well as the number of pupils and professors in each. English is the mother tongue of only a little more than 9 per cent of all the pupils attending these twenty-one institutions, the language of the remainder being French. The Classical course, including two years of philosophy, covers a period of eight years.

It includes the study of Greek and Latin, to which educators, in certain countries, are coming back after having tried to abolish it. The study of the dead languages does not diminish the student's ardour for the two official languages of the country, French and English. Mount St. Louis, directed by the Christian Brothers, has a modern secondary course without Greek or Latin. They prepare young men principally for the polytechnical schools.

The classical colleges affiliated with Laval University have the university course of studies and examinations. In the Legislature organized two technical schools: one at Montreal, the other at Quebec. In the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame opened a college for young women.

It is affiliated with Laval University, and embraces English, French, and commercial sections. The regular course, leading to the degrees of B. About seventy-five follow the regular course. A large number attend the public lectures. The final examinations of the year are submitted to university professors. The staff of sixteen religious is assisted by professors. Catholicism was introduced in the Province of Nova Scotia by the French with the first settlement of the country; but the first mention which we have of Catholic school education dates only from thirty years later, when the Recollects opened at Port-Royal a seminary for the instruction of French and Indian children.

About the vicar-general, Petit, says in a letter to his superior, Mgr Vallier, that he has with him a man who teaches the boys of Port-Royal. Mgr Vallier himself first sends a Sister of the Congregation of Notre Dame to teach the Indian and French girls of Port-Royal, and a few years after, in , he sends for Geoffrey, a Sulpician, "to continue the instruction of youth which so far has been so well looked after".

In fact Geoffroy improved the school teaching and supervising.

The Origins of American Philosophy of Education

He also laid the foundation for the future coming of the Sisters of the Cross, who came in , after the capture of Port-Royal by Phipps and the cession of Acadia to France in After the final taking of Acadia by the English it seems that Catholic schools were abolished, as we find Father Burke writing: "There is a great desire to establish a Catholic School [in Halifax]. The need is pressing. We would succeed if we could have repealed an infamous law forbidding Catholic Schools".

Through the zeal of the Catholic missionaries, however, Catholic education was not altogether neglected. Since then there have been very few separate schools properly so called. Under this law the province is divided into districts called schools sections, which are administered by a board of three trustees elected by the ratepayers of the section. It is the duty of the trustees to engage teachers and to pay them out of the funds derived partly from taxes directly imposed upon the inhabitants of the section and partly from government grants.

According to law, the teaching of the Catechism is prohibited during regular school hours; but the trustees may instruct teachers to give lessons in Catholic doctrine during one half-hour after class every day. Inspectors are appointed by the Council of Public Instruction to visit the schools and report upon them to the superintendent of education. Some of these schools are under the direction of religious teaching communities as follows: In the Diocese of Halifax the Sisters of Charity have charge of nine such schools, four in the city of Halifax and five in the Acadian parishes of Meteghan, Church Point, Eal Brook, and West Pubnico, and the English-speaking parish of Prospect.

In the Diocese of Antigonish the Sisters of the Congregation of Notre Dame conduct seven of these schools, with 37 religious and pupils; the Sisters of Charity, 5 schools; the Daughters of Jesus, 2. These separate schools are supported by the Catholics of their respective towns. There are also three Catholic colleges for boys in the Province: St. Francis Xavier English , at Antigonish, with 15 professors and pupils; St. Mary, at Halifax, with 7 professors and 80 pupils. As had been the case in Nova Scotia, the first Catholic schools in New Brunswick were opened by Catholic missionaries; and when the regrettable deportation took place, it could be said that a great number of Acadians were able at least to read their prayers and also the exercises relating to the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass.

One can easily understand how these poor exiles returned to their country and more particularly to New Brunswick. Their first care was undoubtedly to assure their very existence, as a great number of those who escaped deportation died of hunger and cold in the forest and on the desert banks of the gulf. Next, they asked for missionaries and for persons capable of teaching reading and writing to their children. For lack of priests they had to be content on Sunday with reading the prayers for Mass, and it was imperative to teach their children the truths of religion as contained in the short catechism.

Fifty years and more passed before it became possible for them—such was their extreme poverty, and so precarious the conditions of their existence—to procure the service of any school-teacher. However, at the close of the Napoleonic Wars, adventurers, sailors, deserters, or tourists came from France, who knew how to read and write, and their services were eagerly accepted. The old residents still remember M. Grenet, who taught at Barachois, M. Gabriel Albert, who taught at Grande Digue, M. This school remained open for two years to , with three teachers, Messrs.

Des Varennes, Braidly, and Gosselin. When the lands and properties of this institution were afterwards sold, the proceeds were placed in the hands of Mgr Sweeney, in trust for the education of young Acadians, in the event of another college being built in the diocese for any other similar purpose. In those days the Acadians received from the British Protestant authorities the fulness of their political and civil rights without molestation or annoyance in things religious or relating to the French language.

The thinly populated country did not as yet complain of the burden of its school laws. The first act to be found in the Statutes of New Brunswick concerning education is dated and relates to the founding of a public grammar school for the City of Saint John. It is therein enacted that the rector of Trinity Church shall be one of the directors of this school, and at the same time president of the Board of Administration.

A somewhat paltry grant was awarded to this establishment. In the same manner, other grammar schools were authorized for different localities in New Brunswick. The first law establishing public parish schools dates from These schools are placed under the control of three school trustees for each parish. These trustees possess great executive authority.

The justices of the peace are entrusted with the duty of making school reports to the Government.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig Josef Johann

No certificate of competence was exacted beyond the approbation of the parochial syndics, and no examination as to aptitude was held. It was not until many years afterwards towards that the Board of Education, with its hierarchy and inspectors, was definitely organized. These latter, until the events of , always showed kindness and liberality towards Catholic teaching and the French tongue. The Catholic teachers received from the board their grant, as did also the Protestant teachers, French and English alike.

In a law was passed by the Provincial Legislature establishing "Neutral Schools", in which the French language was ignored; but it was taught in the French schools and was afterwards recognized officially. The French and the English Catholics protested energetically against this unjust measure. Petitions were signed and sent to Ottawa requesting the repeal of this law, which was injurious to the Catholics who constituted one-third of the population of the Province.


Some turbulent and stormy years passed over; certain defenders of the minority were imprisoned, and finally a modus vivendi was adopted to the effect that the school remain neutral from 9 A. The books shall be approved by the Government. The use of the French language was recognized, and a set of books was chosen to that end. After the regular school hours the Catechism was permitted to be taught. Nowadays all the schools of New Brunswick are under the control of the law, even those exclusively attended by Catholic children.

The number of Catholic children frequenting the schools is about 23,; the teachers, male and female, number about Even so, it was not until the nineteenth century that the philosophy of education was recognized as a distinct discipline. The aim, in the present study, has been to study the origins of philosophy of education as a distinct discipline in the United States. In searching for origins, I have explored the philosophic considerations of education from which came those distinct conceptions of the philosophy of education that were to serve as points of departure for later considerations of the discipline.

JavaScript is currently disabled, this site works much better if you enable JavaScript in your browser. Free Preview. Buy eBook. It began by requiring that every school district should have sufficient public schools: There shall be provided for every school district a sufficient amount of accommodation in public elementary schools as herein-after defined available for all the children resident in such district for whose elementary education efficient and suitable provision is not otherwise made, and where there is an insufficient amount of such accommodation, in this Act referred to as 'public school accommodation,' the deficiency shall be supplied in manner provided by this Act Section 5.

School boards were to be formed for areas where there was currently insufficient provision 6. Regulations for the conduct of public elementary schools were set out in section 7. These included the right of parents to withdraw their children from religious instruction. Sections set out the Education Department's powers to determine whether additional school places were required, to require the formation of school boards and to requisition them to provide the extra schools.

Sections listed the powers and duties of school boards for the management and maintenance of their schools. These included: the requirement that 'No religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination shall be taught in the school' 14 ; the power of school boards to appoint managers 15 ; the duty of school boards to 'keep efficient' every school provided by them, and to provide 'additional school accommodation as is, in their opinion, necessary' 18 ; the powers of school boards to purchase land compulsorily 20 ; paying for new schools out of the local school fund or Treasury loans to be repaid within five years 21 ; and legal matters relating to the transfer of a school to a school board 23 and the re-transfer of a school by a school board to the managers School boards were empowered to support the education of the poor: The school board may, if they think fit, from time to time, for a renewable period not exceeding six months, pay the whole or any part of the school fees payable at any public elementary school by any child resident in their district whose parent is in their opinion unable from poverty to pay the same; but no such payment shall be made or refused on condition of the child attending any public elementary school other than such as may be selected by the parent; and such payment shall not be deemed to be parochial relief given to such parent.

Matters relating to the operation of school boards were set out in sections These included: their constitutions 30 ; elections 31 ; disqualification from membership 34 ; the appointment of officers 35 ; and the appointment of an officer to enforce attendance at school Corresponding arrangements for the school board for London were set out in sections Sections dealt with a range of administrative and financial matters including: the Education Department's powers to form united school districts, other than in London ; the Department's powers to require a school district to contribute to the costs of another ; the management of school funds ; borrowing by school boards ; accounting and auditing of school funds ; provisions relating to school boards in default ; the duty of local authorities to make returns to the Education Department ; and the power of the Education Department to hold public inquiries In relation to school attendance 74 , the Act empowered school boards to make by-laws 'Requiring the parents of children of such age, not less than five years nor more than thirteen years, as may be fixed by the byelaws, to cause such children unless there is some reasonable excuse to attend school'.

Boards were also empowered to determine the time during which children were to attend school with exceptions for religious observance ; and to pay all or part of the school fees of any child whose parents were in poverty. The remainder of Part I of the Act covered various technical and administrative matters. Part II of the Act, dealing with the parliamentary grant, stated that: After the thirty-first day of March one thousand eight hundred and seventy-one no parliamentary grant shall be made to any elementary school which is not a public elementary school within the meaning of this Act.

No parliamentary grant shall be made in aid of building, enlarging, improving, or fitting up any elementary school, except in pursuance of a memorial duly signed, and containing the information required by the Education Department for enabling them to decide on the application, and sent to the Education Department on or before the thirty-first day of December one thousand eight hundred and seventy.

Finally, section required the Education Department to provide an annual report to Parliament. There were five Schedules to the Act, dealing with various administrative matters. The church problem The dual system - of voluntary and board schools - created by the Act was 'an untidy compromise', but it did represent 'another step towards secularization and state control' Stephens The 'Cowper-Temple clause' pronounced 'Cooper-Temple' in section 14 of the Act 'No religious catechism or religious formulary which is distinctive of any particular denomination shall be taught in the school' was named after its proposer, Liberal MP William Cowper-Temple It banned denominational teaching in the new board schools.

But in other respects, the Act failed to resolve the problem of the involvement of the churches in state educational provision. It could have begun to separate church and state, as was happening in other countries. The churches had not been able to make universal provision, so the state would now fund schools managed by locally elected and interdenominationally representative school boards.

Church schools would continue to receive a maintenance grant of up to fifty per cent, but once the system was in place they would get no money for new buildings. Some assumed that the Act would result in a gradual decline in the number of church schools and their replacement by board schools.

The churches, however, were determined to strengthen and consolidate their position, so they took full advantage of the generous offer of government funds for new buildings. In the six months allowed, the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church 'moved with great alacrity to plan as many as they could' Gates Two thousand requests for building grants were made by the National Society, five hundred by the Catholic and Free Churches.

In just fifteen years, the number of Church of England schools rose from 6, to 11,, and Catholic schools from to In the same period, the number of children attending church schools doubled to two million. The cost of sustaining this expanded provision was huge. During the s the number of voluntary schools fell by over there were 14, in , while the number of board schools rose by almost a thousand.

Some church leaders complained about what they saw as the unfair financial advantages enjoyed by the board schools. In Roman Catholic Cardinal Manning declared that the administration of the Act was 'open to the censure of inequality and injustice' quoted in Armytage , while the Anglican Canon Gregory argued that the Act had endowed with the school rate those who had done nothing and it has excluded those who have hitherto educated the people of England from participation in the school rate, to which they are also nevertheless compelled to pay quoted in Armytage The Church of England - to its shame - even sought to undermine the new system by attempting to prevent the election of school boards.

For more on this issue see The School Boards below. Mundella understood the motive behind these attacks and wrote to a friend: I keep screwing up [ie improving] the quality of education and insist on the quantity being ample, and all this makes increased and increasing demands upon the voluntary system, and brings the poorer school gradually in the hands of the board. That is the real reason for Manning's outcry quoted in Armytage In June the National Society sent a memorandum to Gladstone asking for assistance. Mundella wrote to Lord Carlingford, Lord President of the Council, to warn him of the danger of acceding to their demands: I have felt now for more than a year past that this demand would be made.

Cardinal Manning and Canon Gregory have struck up an arrangement in which they have endeavoured, but unsuccessfully, to include the Wesleyans to agitate for increased grants to voluntary schools. A series of articles have appeared in the Nineteenth Century from the pens of these two ecclesiastics making out the best case they can for their claims. These have been very effectively replied to by the Rev. Dale of Birmingham, who not only showed with great force and clearness the injustice of the demand, but also the consequences likely to follow upon it, viz.

I am sincerely anxious for educational progress and I believe we shall best secure this by the maintenance of the compromise of I am confident, however, that any attempt to depart from this compromise, any attempt to share the rates or differentiate the grants made to voluntary or board schools, would plunge us into a bitter agitation, viz.

Already I find it sufficiently difficult to meet the attacks upon the weaker and less defensible portions of our present system, especially upon the training colleges. Still, if those who have benefited most by the act of are so unwise as to attack it, or if the Government were so ill advised as to show a doubtful mind in dealing with the present demand, I am satisfied that serious agitation would follow, and that education would in all probability suffer until a final settlement was arrived at quoted in Armytage In the newly formed interdenominational Voluntary Schools Association began lobbying for greater public funding for church schools.

Four years later the Cross Commission details below reviewed the working of the Act and recommended public funding for the secular curriculum in church schools, a proposal which was eventually included in the Education Act details in the next chapter. The school boards As a result of the Act, new school boards were created in England and Wales between and They varied greatly in size: London was, inevitably, the largest, while some rural boards controlled just one school.

They were directly elected and independent of existing forms of local government. All ratepayers - including women - could vote and stand for election. As single-purpose authorities they were able, in large towns, to attract candidates of high quality. In , EA Knox, chair of the Birmingham School Board, argued that the success of the boards had been mainly due to the calibre of those whom they attracted as members, especially in their earlier years.

School Boards enlisted the activity and zeal of many eminent men and women of strong philanthropic instincts who, for various reasons, had not hitherto enjoyed any similar opportunity of public service. A seat on the School Board was a highly-coveted honour quoted in Lawson and Silver The boards were 'a representative social phenomenon' Lawson and Silver They became 'a focus of new social pressures and of a new interest in democratic processes', though their lessons in democracy were 'not always salutary' Lawson and Silver : Elections were often sectarian battles between Church of England and nonconformity, between candidates pledged to educational development and those pledged to save the ratepayers' money, or between political parties.

Some of the smaller boards in rural areas were controlled by people who had opposed their creation, and were pledged to restrict their activities Lawson and Silver Problems arose in many towns including, for example, Chester, where local opposition delayed the setting up of a board; in Liverpool, where 'school board politics became part of the struggle between Orangemen and Roman Catholics'; in Birmingham, where 'religious and political controversy often absorbed prodigious amounts of school boards' time and money'; and in Manchester, Salford, Sheffield and Leeds, where clerical and other opponents gained control of the boards.

In her book A Century of City Government: Manchester , Shena Simon noted that the city's School Board had a majority of Churchmen and Roman Catholics for the whole of its existence, and these members were elected primarily to see that the new Board schools which they had to manage did as little damage as possible to their own schools, in which many of them were naturally more interested Simon quoted in Simon Throughout the s Anglicans and Roman Catholics, who had consistently opposed popular control of education, attacked the School Board system with increasing confidence while at the same time demanding increased support for voluntary schools from public funds.

Rural areas - especially those in which the Church of England was strong - fared just as badly, with boards consisting 'largely of local farmers and Anglican laymen and clergy, antipathetic to the education of those they regarded as future agricultural labourers' Stephens But the picture was not entirely a negative one: the working class had at last some opportunity of exercising control over the schooling of their children.

With the first school board elections working-class candidates were in the field and a few were successful. Thomas Henry Huxley, whose scientific lectures to workers had made him a popular figure since , was elected a member of the first London School Board and managed to ensure that elementary science was included in the curriculum of the capital's new board schools Simon Furthermore, most of the boards were remarkably successful: they 'pursued active and progressive policies and numbered influential personalities among their elected members' Stephens Many began to appoint their own inspectors who, unlike HMIs [Her Majesty's Inspectors], were recruited mainly from experienced elementary-school head teachers Lawson and Silver The London board had 55 members and controlled almost schools.

It was not only the largest but also the most influential, the architecture and layout of its schools being widely copied. Its leading figures, such as Huxley, 'commanded national respect' Lawson and Silver It took the board just twelve years to catch up with the , or so children in voluntary schools, and by the time it was abolished it had more than , school places Lawson and Silver The vast scope and achievements of the London School Board made it a national institution.

It erected buildings which set standards for others to emulate; it established a system of school attendance officers, known somewhat euphemistically as 'visitors', who soon provided a wealth of detailed and reliable information about the lives of the urban poor; and it appointed its own medical officer to report on air space and the ventilation of classrooms and to examine children with special needs.

Between and , the number of pupils in board schools in London rose from to ,, while those in voluntary schools dropped from , to , Chitty In Manchester In the School Board was conducting five schools with an average attendance of 1, pupils; seven years later it was responsible for 16, pupils in 38 schools, 13 of which had been built by the Board, the rest having been purchased or transferred. The average number of pupils present weekly at all elementary schools in the city both board and voluntary rose by 20, in a decade - from 30, in to 50, in It was chiefly children between the ages of five and eleven, previously often running wild in the streets, who were effectively brought into school and, therefore, under the control of local authorities Simon By board schools had an average national attendance of around 1,, Voluntary schools' average attendance was just over 1,, in and had doubled by By , nearly half the children who attended public elementary schools were in board schools: in large urban areas the proportion was often much higher.

Although the voluntary and public elementary schools were rival systems in one respect, they formed a socially coherent system in another respect: the identification of this system with the working class did not alter in the remainder of the nineteenth century and was only slowly eroded in the twentieth century Lawson and Silver AJ Balfour , Leader of the House and First Lord of the Treasury, complained about the 'intolerable strain' to which voluntary schools were subjected.

In the new government introduced a bill which proposed raising the school leaving age and making new grants for secondary education. But it also offered increased aid to church schools while restricting the activities of School Boards. The Labour movement protested: the Independent Labour Party began demanding secular, as opposed to unsectarian, education, though it was not entirely united on this stance; and Trades Councils across the country declared that the bill was an attack on religious liberty and popular education Simon Liberals, supporting nonconformist interests, also opposed the bill, arguing against the proposed repeal of the Cowper-Temple clause; the school boards objected to the proposal that secondary education should be outside their control; and even some government supporters were against it, fearing that it would lead to higher rates for education.

In the event, the government dropped the bill, but introduced a new one a year later: the Voluntary Schools Act 8 April was limited to providing further subsidies for church schools. The forces were beginning to line up for a decisive struggle' Simon The Cockerton Judgement Hostility to the school boards continued, however, focused on the fact that some of them had 'significantly altered the legislators' original concept of elementary schooling in terms of buildings, equipment, curricula and age range' Chitty by establishing 'higher tops' advanced classes and even separate higher grade schools for older pupils who showed ability and commitment.

A few had gone still further and created a new type of evening school for adults. Leading Conservatives, notably Sir John Gorst pictured , Conservative Vice-President of the Committee on Education, began attacking the school boards for what they regarded as inappropriate use of the rates. An influential committee was formed to 'combat the School Boards' and, in particular, to 'undermine the advanced work' they were sponsoring quoted in Chitty In , Gorst's private secretary Sir Robert Morant engineered a test case in which a School of Art in London complained of competition from evening classes run by the London School Board.

The District Auditor - Cockerton - ruled that the London School Board could not use the rates to fund higher-grade classes in science and art. The famous 'Cockerton Judgement', as it became known, was of profound importance, because it 'sealed the fate of advanced, or secondary, teaching fostered by the more radical and enterprising School Boards' Chitty The London School Board appealed twice against the ruling, but it was upheld on both occasions. As an interim measure, the Board of Education established, by Minute dated 6 April , a new system of 'Higher Elementary Schools' of which more in the next chapter.

But it was clear that a new education act was needed to regularise the situation. In the Cockerton Judgement, Morant and Gorst had achieved their first objective: to prevent school boards from funding anything but elementary schools. Their second objective - to create all-embracing local education authorities and provide much-needed public cash for the church schools - was achieved by the Education Act, which Morant drafted.

The elementary schools The elementary schools provided by the boards were intended to and did rest on the same central assumption as the voluntary schools which they were called on to supplement - they were for the children of the poor, providing an independent system for the lower class Lawson and Silver Blyth argues that elementary schools were 'a whole educational process in themselves and one which is by definition limited and by implication inferior; a low plateau, rather than the foothills of a complete education' Blyth They catered for children up to 14; were for the working class; provided a restricted curriculum with the emphasis almost exclusively on reading, writing and arithmetic the 'three Rs' , largely as a result of the Revised Code; pursued other, less clearly defined, aims including social-disciplinary objectives acceptance of the teacher's authority, the need for punctuality, obedience, conformity etc ; used the monitorial system, whereby a teacher supervised a large class with assistance from a team of monitors who were usually older pupils.

Elementary education was widely criticised. Scottish scientist and Liberal politician Lyon Playfair complained that the poor quality of science teaching was 'impoverishing the land. It is disgracefully behind the age in which we live, and of the civilization of which we boast' quoted in Lawson and Silver John Ruskin bemoaned the lack of creativity in the curriculum: Commiserate the hapless Board School child, shut out from dreamland and poetry, and prematurely hardened and vulgarised by the pressure of codes and formularies.

He spends his years as a tale that is not told quoted in Lawson and Silver Other writers - notably Herbert Spencer and TH Huxley - were equally concerned, and their views, coupled with the growth of public interest in education, persuaded the Committee of Council on Education to expand the curriculum of elementary schools. The Code of , for example, made provision for a special grant in respect of each individual scholar who passed a satisfactory examination in not more than two 'specific' subjects of secular instruction beyond the three Rs.

At the same time the list of specific subjects was extended to include foreign languages, various branches of pure and applied science, or any definite subject of instruction extending over the classes to be examined in Standards IV, V, and VI. The Code also introduced an infant stage - see Infant schools below. In , a further step was taken by the introduction of 'class' subjects - grammar, geography, history and plain needlework - for which additional grant was paid. Later Codes, especially that of , extended the list of these class subjects which, if taught at all, had to be taught throughout the whole school above Standard I.

The Education Act provided for a system of certificates, which gave free education for three years to pupils who had passed the Standard IV examination at 10 years of age and held a certificate of regular attendance for five years. This arrangement lasted for only five years, but several leading witnesses who gave evidence to the Cross Commission in of which more below spoke of the useful results of the system while it was in operation, and it seems to have helped considerably in the development of higher classes - 'tops' - to many elementary schools.

Conclusions Of the school boards, Armytage argues that: Nothing presents an apter architectural embodiment of the ideas of the Liberals of than the old board schools, which, blackened now by three-quarters of a century of soot, stand gauntly above the drab Victorian streets. Solid, stone-built structures, they are often compared to prisons. But the more discriminating will notice that the windows were many and large, and there were invariably tiles of good Hanley pottery half-way round the walls.

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  5. They represented 'the order, system and cleanliness' that were to be brought to bear upon a generation that otherwise would have been dwarfed by the factories. This was the most efficient factory act yet passed, for it did bring the children into schools for part of their lives Armytage As to the significance of the Act itself, Brian Simon writes: With the Education Act of reorganisation of the country's educational system was completed in the light of the new conditions following the extension of the franchise.

    It had not been originally envisaged that the workers' education should be so extended; least of all that control of schools be handed over to elected bodies and the teaching of religion made optional. But events had forced the pace and mass working-class pressure contributed to ensuring that at least the first foundations of a universal system were laid - that education was no longer a charity but a right Simon Three more Acts The remaining years of the nineteenth century saw a raft of legislation which added detail to the state education system the Act had begun.

    In this respect, the two most significant Acts were the Elementary Education Act of , which made school attendance compulsory, and that of , which made elementary education free. In the meantime, three Acts built on the foundation which the Act had provided. The Elementary Education Act 5 August made some amendments to the Act, mostly of a technical nature.

    Its provisions related to: parental responsibility for the education of children section 4 ; the employment of children under 10 ; the payment of school fees for poor parents 10 ; the care of neglected children 11 ; penalties for non-compliance with a school attendance order 12 ; industrial schools ; parliamentary grants ; by-laws requiring school attendance ; and various other administrative matters. The Elementary Education Industrial Schools Act 11 August extended the powers of school boards in relation to the establishment and extension of industrial schools.

    Many working-class parents saw the value of schooling for their children, but 'there remained concentrations of those who were most unlikely ever to see that their offspring obtained an adequate education - unless compelled to do so' Stephens Some of these were so poor that they could not manage without their children's work or wages; others, notably in some mining and manufacturing districts, 'were well able to afford schooling, but were indifferent to it or saw no need of more than a hasty acquisition of the rudiments, since good wages could be earned by the illiterate' Stephens It became obvious, therefore, that the achievement of universal schooling of a reasonable standard would require 'not only the provision of extra schools but the imposition of compulsory attendance' Stephens In Mundella was appointed Vice-President of the Committee in Council on Education, a post he held for five years.

    He immediately used his new position to push for compulsory elementary education. The Elementary Education Act 26 August the Mundella Act obliged local authorities as designated by the Elementary Education Act to make by-laws requiring school attendance, and provided for penalties in cases where year olds were illegally employed. It thus effectively established in practice the universal education which the Act had declared in principle.

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    Hitherto compulsion had been permissive - i. But many of them, fearing the loss in earning power of child labour, had still not done so. Mundella's Act declared they should do so 'forthwith'. If the local authority did not comply by the end of the year , the department themselves would frame the by-laws. Moreover, it made the employer of any child between the ages of ten and thirteen liable to a penalty if that child had not a certificate of education as laid down by these by-laws Armytage Action was swift: two days after the Act received the royal assent, circulars were sent to all the authorities which had not passed attendance by-laws.

    Within five months over 1, sets of by-laws were sanctioned, and by January only twenty-eight unions, eighty-one school boards, one school attendance committee and one urban sanitary authority had not complied. With these minute exceptions the whole population were compelled to send their children to school Armytage The Act was 'another milestone in advance' Armytage The fifth standard became the minimum standard required for the exemption of ten-year-olds from compulsory school attendance.

    The Factory and Workshop Act section 26 had empowered 'a Secretary of State, with the consent of the Education Department' to set the required standard for such exemption. Furthermore, the so-called 'dunce's certificate', which had allowed less-able children to leave school at ten once they had completed attendances, was no longer available except for children of thirteen years and over, 'and even then the child was required to attend school half-time for another year' Armytage It proved to be a lengthy task. A code committee, presided over by Mundella himself, spent a year considering proposals which were then submitted to parliament.

    Armytage argues that 'even more significant than the changes he made was the way he made them, which marked the end of the autocratic tradition of Robert Lowe' Armytage Funding for the new code was approved in March Lord Frederick Cavendish, Financial Secretary to the Treasury, wrote to Mundella: I shall write to you to-day accepting your proposed changes in the code as satisfactory.

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    We should have been very sorry if we had been obliged to make any difficulties about a scheme which seems to have been worked out with great care and judgement quoted in Armytage Mundella's work was recognised by the Royal Society, whose Council unanimously elected him a Fellow. The Mundella Code 'blazed new trails' Armytage Though the system of payment by results remained at its core, a great deal was done to moderate the rigours of the ordeal that is so well described in Jude the Obscure , where an examining inspector enters the room and the teacher falls on her face in a dead faint Armytage In infant schools, ninety per cent of the grant still depended on examinations, but 'manual employments and play' were now recognised Armytage , and inspectors noted that this led to a huge improvement in junior schools.

    At the upper end of the age range, the provisions in the and Education Acts regarding attendance by-laws had resulted in a large increase in the number of children remaining at school up to and beyond the age of To meet the needs of these pupils, the Mundella Code added a seventh standard, 'with a syllabus that made possible its separation into a school of higher grade' Armytage Perhaps the most important feature of the new code, however, was the introduction of the 'merit grant'.

    This was designed to promote more intelligent teaching by eliminating the 'wasteful allotment of the government grant to mere elementary grind' Armytage Schools were to be classified as 'fair', 'good' or 'excellent' for the purpose of allocating the grant, and inspectors were provided with instructions to guide them in their assessment: An excellent school is characterised by cheerful yet exact discipline maintained without harshness or noisy demonstration of authority.

    Its premises are cleanly and well ordered, its timetable provides a proper variety of mental employment and of physical exercise; its organisation is such as to distribute the teaching power judiciously, and to secure for every scholar, whether he is likely to bring credit to the school or not, a fair share of instruction and attention.

    Where circumstances permit, it also has its lending library, its savings bank, and an orderly collection of simple objects and apparatus adapted to illustrate the school lessons, and formed in part by the co-operation of the scholars themselves Report of Committee of Council Instructions to Inspectors, , quoted in Armytage Three other points about the Mundella Code are worth making. First, it made grant payments dependent on the average attendance of the whole school, rather than on that of individual children.

    As a result, more children were presented for examination and this 'led to a better appreciation of what was actually being taught in the school' Armytage Second, new subjects - including science and, for girls, cookery - became eligible for grants: Elementary science was recognised throughout the school.

    More attention to English and physical geography was ensured by a rearrangement of the list of class subjects. Specific subjects were extended to include electricity and magnetism; heat, light and sound; chemistry and agriculture. For girls, cookery appeared as a grant-earning subject. In the teaching of these the emphasis was to be on explaining the common objects of everyday life Armytage Inspectors were to impress on managers and teachers that 'the more thoroughly a teacher is qualified for his position by skill, character and personal influence, the less necessary is it for him to resort to corporal chastisement at all' Report of Committee of Council Instructions to Inspectors, , quoted in Armytage And third, 'the most essential novelty about the Mundella Code was that it was not unalterable' Armytage A permanent committee was established to review aspects of the code and, for the first time, instructions to inspectors and other requirements of the department were published in one volume which became 'part of the equipment of every school' Armytage The effects of the Mundella Code were far-reaching.

    The code placed new burdens on inspectors. As a result of their increased workload, described as 'somewhat alarming' by one inspector quoted in Armytage , the inspectorate was reorganised into ten districts, each with a chief inspector reporting to the department; a new class of sub-inspector was created; and the first woman inspector was appointed 'as a consequence of the introduction of cookery' Armytage The code also highlighted the inadequacy of teacher training.

    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913
    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913
    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913
    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913
    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913
    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913
    The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913 The Origins of American Philosophy of Education: Its Development as a Distinct Discipline, 1808–1913

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