They are all of them, importantly, written by scholars deeply conversant with Welsh-language culture in the period. The ballads and poems are in Welsh with parallel English translations. I am not in a position to judge, but Jones and Charnell-Whyte in their introductions set out their aim to be as literal as possible in translating, and they have maintained as far as possible the verse forms.
Each text comes with very full notes which set the texts in their political and historical contexts. One feature of this is to suggest just how fully Welsh speakers were involved in the debates which convulsed Europe. That said, a bardic culture was still strong, and this dictated the verse forms that many of the poets adopted. As with the Scots and Irish in the period, the majority of Welsh people celebrated their own national identity as an extension of a wider British identity, regardless of political persuasion.
Some poets celebrated monarchy, especially following the regicide, but others quoted Thomas Paine with enthusiasm. Some of the poems come from manuscript many were first performed at bardic competitions , but others circulated in periodicals and in other print forms. Ballad culture was an important part of popular culture in Britain and Ireland in this period, as much recent scholarship has shown, but it was also under pressure. In Wales, this is partly on account of the spread of Methodism. Ballad production was most prominent in North Wales, with Carmarthen an important southern outpost.
Because of their popular nature, ballads tended to reflect class tensions, and this fact made them ripe ground for discussing the revolution debates. The anthology begins with the war in the Burke—Paine debate impacted on poets, not ballad writers. Given recent attention by the likes of Kevin Gilmartin  to counter-revolutionary culture, it ought not to prompt a groan that significantly more of the ballads are loyalist. That said, they were not uniform in their response. Although ballads were less common in the south-west, those written tended to reflect religious if not usually political dissent.
The most important aspect of all of the ballads, and an aspect that signals a distinction from ballads produced over the border, is the centrality of God. The revolution was clearly important to the writers, but they tend towards ambiguity because the determining context was always the divine.
Other ballads discussed Nelson and Napoleon, and, as might be expected, a great many discussed the attempted French landing at Fishguard in Ballad culture, one might assume, was lively, even rambunctious, but disengaged from the world around it. The most famous Welsh writer of the period, and the subject of the greatest critical discussion, is Iolo Morganwg or Edward Williams. His work, as Geraint H. Jenkins demonstrates in Bard of Liberty: The Political Radicalism of Iolo Morganwg , provides the radicalism one might miss in the ballad tradition.
This is the ninth and final volume in a book series dedicated to him. Iolo spent time in London in and sucked up as much of the intellectual life of the city as he could. He also composed a song supporting the volunteers who would defend Wales from a French invasion. Jenkins is clearly disappointed by this. Indeed, the book resembles criticism of Burns in its desire to make an engaged radical out of a national icon. In both cases the distinction between radical and loyalist was probably less clear-cut.
Jenkins writes with lively vigour, producing a highly entertaining, somewhat polemical political biography of a very important Romantic poet. The Languages of Resistance , pp. There were a number of other general discussions of Romantic poetry. The lyric might usually be opposed to narrative, but Stelzig shows the hidden links between two apparently divergent genres. These two seemingly distant speech communities in fact influenced each other as they developed a nostalgic poetics which began in a specific political situation before becoming a more general condition.
Chandler suggests its similarity to works by Wordsworth and Southey and its differing receptions in Britain and America on stage and in literature. The Romantic lyric became, perhaps surprisingly, a major mode of expression for prisoners, who were often, as LeGrand shows, denied paper and ink. From , Byron, Hunt, Moore, Hone, Lamb, and many others found verse the most congenial form to express their disdain.
Dyer claims that the mode of circulation in private, in newspapers, in limited print runs is a crucial aspect of the way poets engaged with a public debate without like Hunt and Hone ending up in prison. The politics of the question of what one does with an empire which survives as ruin is especially compelling. An appropriation does not aspire to originality and Slagle makes a convincing case that these writers made a virtue of the fact. Their work depends upon, but creatively reworks, other histories and poetic romances. Baillie followed Hodson in writing on William Wallace, and they both engaged with Scott and Southey in doing so, before having their own substantial influences on those poets and others in turn.
Slagle tracks the relations between the four, providing important new information. She offers relatively little critical analysis, but her suggestion of their influence on Tennyson p.
Slagle seems a little unsure at times about how important gender might be. The wealth of their interests, and the skill with which they weave their tales, make them worthy of further investigation. Montgomery was especially closely involved, and asked Baillie for a poem on the subject. It took time, but their efforts had an effect. These suggest her attempt to negotiate the division between history and fiction, a generic divide that Fermanis shows was gendered in the period.
Daniel P. A crucial means for making this appeal, for Watkins, is the book rather than the individual poem. He considers the epigraphs and allusions, her choice of genre and form, and the arrangement of the poems in the volume, both in the first edition and in the second, which was published by Joseph Johnson in Barbauld uses this small poem, and its small subject, in opposition to her epigraph from Virgil to think through the relation between genres and between small moments and large schemes.
The religious poems which end the volume return her to her first difficulties. A transformative political vision becomes possible, and is revealed to the reader, through hard work. Robert K. Thomas Lovell Beddoes has been discussed more frequently in recent years, but books devoted to him are relatively rare. Berns is opposed to this view, and seeks to reconnect Beddoes with history. Beddoes left Britain for Germany in and lived there until In this period, as Berns shows, Beddoes was not inert: rather, he was engaged with German politics, philosophy, and science.
Berns also claims that he was intent on making an impact in Britain. Beddoes was much possessed by death but his interest in the topic was driven by his career as a medical student.
Landscape and Literature 1830-1914: Nature, Text, Aura
The understanding of history he derives from his German researches drives what Berns sees as his radical political outlook which protests against a Restauration Europe which thought the clock could be turned back. This is a long, very full book. Berns takes every opportunity to fill in as much historical detail as she can. For this reason the book is very informative; by the same token, it is not always a breezy read. It will, however, become a touchstone in Beddoes criticism for many years.
Re-envisioning Blake , edited by Mark Crosby, Troy Patenaude and Angus Whitehead, seeks to provide a more synoptic overview of Blake studies by attending with equal interest to the range of usually competing critical perspectives that have characterized the field. The breadth of work on Blake is attested to by the range my review covers this year, and this collection is heartening in its aspiration to maintain that range while moving beyond narrow partisanship. Keri Davies and David Worrall also co-author a chapter, if in a more integrated fashion, dissenting from the Victorian construction of Blake as a Dissenter while also offering important reflections on the currently historicist tenor of the field.
Shirley Dent makes equally challenging claims. Mark Crosby and Angus Whitehead continue the recent attempts discussed last year to recover Catherine Blake as a powerful businesswoman in her own right. John E. The collection suggests the vigour with which Blakeans question their field, and the variety of the contents bodes well for its future.
Blake, Gender and Culture , edited by Helen P. Bruder, and Tristanne J. Mark Crosby offers an overview of his depictions of Eve, especially in Genesis and his Paradise Lost illustrations. Catherine McClenehan offers a reading of Jerusalem informed by the historical shifts in the understanding of sexuality. The population debate, led by Godwin and Malthus, may not seem a likely route into Blakean sexuality, but David Fallon, in a fascinating piece of historical scholarship, manages just that. Elizabeth Effinger claims that The Book of Thel can help us join the history of medicine to Lacanian theory.
This leads her to consider their submerged homoeroticism, a fact that his publisher attempted to undermine. Steve Clark counterintuitively connects Blake with Joanna Baillie and the theatre: she wrote closet dramas, and Clark unites them in a queer reading of the closeted quality of performance. She offers a complex and wide-ranging argument, but it is compelling, focused, and clear. This is why Deleuze desires an analogue language: it permits difference within eternal structures. Colebrook offers Blake as a vital guide to these difficulties. His work incorporates systematic and anti-systematic thinking, immanence and transcendence, and considers writing as taking necessarily a form, a limit to thought, and yet possessing the ability to point beyond those limits.
His ability to grasp the necessity of the things he critiqued makes him, for Colebrook, especially able to provide a critique of the digital. The central concept for this process is incarnation, an idea usually Neoplatonic or Christian. For Blake the relation between body and spirit, or between idea and book, is much more ambivalent. Neither body nor spirit is dominant, but he does not unite them either. His texts assert the primacy of text, but do so, Colebrook proposes, in such a way as to make feeling the primary expression.
This relationship also drives his understanding of the divine: it is transcendent, yet its transcendence begins in the material human. Colebrook offers a complex, fascinating argument, seeming always, and enjoyably so, to be both on the one hand and on the other. Ballard and Michael Moorcock. Roger Whitson wonders how Blake might be transformed by Web 2.
Victorians like Swinburne are at the heart of the study. This proto-Nietzschean individualism had its appeal, but more conservative critics saw a dangerous dissolution of social bonds. Blake becomes bound up in debates about national identity and the avant-garde, is condemned for an association with the Pre-Raphaelites, but is also celebrated for his commitment to the work of art. There was, Trodd demonstrates, a lively, various public debate about Blake amongst artists, academics, curators, and the public. This is a highly impressive achievement, and will be a point of reference for Blakeans and scholars of Victorian and Edwardian art for many years.
Both writers, as she shows, take on the role of prophets who imagine a renewed future state for mankind. Ballard: Visions and Revisions , pp. Cormack considers the limits of history when dealing with writers who push at the edges of the imagination. He also sees Ballard offering a critique of those who too easily co-opt Blake to the counter-culture. Thomas argues that the film is far more deeply imbued with Blakean ideas than might at first appear.
Blake does not single out specialist readers, but becomes split between them all. This complex article ought to prove influential. Essick, with an essay by Robert R. Wark, is an extraordinary publication. Huntington Art Gallery. The plates are reproduced from a copy in the Huntington, and they are the first published in the size of the original.
The editors show, in their remarkably well-informed and careful commentary, how Blake intervened in contemporary controversies over biblical interpretation. Their meticulous plate-by-plate commentaries describe the plates with care and deep knowledge. They will surely achieve just this. In a rich and compelling article, Miner sheds much light on Blake and also makes a claim for him as especially creative in his allusions to the poets. The reason it so fascinated and frustrated him was that it offered an unrepresentable moment of collapse and fragmentation.
This leads Goldsmith to consider the consequences for how Blake thinks about action and the authority for violence. David B. Blake tests and ultimately challenges traditional as well as more well-intentioned anthropocentric views; if it offers no comforting solution then, for Morris, it is the more valuable. Morton D.
Junod considers in particular detail the role of Friedrich Christoph Perthes, the German publisher in whose journal the article appeared. Crabb Robinson emerges from her treatment as a crucial figure in the mediation of English literature in Germany, as well as vice versa. In these, the distinction between masque and antimasque typically ensures the eventual triumph of order over disorder. Blake takes this template and, as might be expected, squashes the two poles together, subverting traditional authority. There were several shorter articles on Blake.
Eugenie R. Robert N. The letters were published online in in an excellent edition, also via Romantic Circles , edited by Tim Fulford and Lynda Pratt. Fulford has made excellent use of the electronic format to do what a printed book could not. Indeed, Bloomfield had hoped to produce an edition incorporating prose, poetry, and sketches, though publishing costs ruled this out for years.
It is a remarkably full and easily navigable edition. Fulford offers a glossary of notable people and places mentioned in the poem, and his introduction is especially helpful. It ought to prompt further work for critics as well as, one hopes, a great deal of pleasure for readers. His relation with his predecessors is well explored. Burns was also consumed in the Americas, and Fiona Black and Rhona Brown suggest the ways in which publishers and editors shaped the way in which he was consumed often to conservative ends.
Nigel Leask suggests a less conventional mode of influence in his discussion of Burns and Latin America. Burns had little immediate impact, and was rarely translated into Portuguese or Spanish, but he becomes a kind of submerged model productive precisely in its disconnections.
Essays by Michael Vance and Kirsteen McCue consider more directly the role of mediation, discussing, respectively, statues and folk songs. Her worshippers have little print to go on, but, perhaps appropriately, this Marian cult depends on gossip, memorials, speculation, and commemorative objects, from egg-cups to statues.
It is likely, argues Brown, that the printer used a manuscript of some kind, though print was not that important. Ross Roy and Patrick G. Ross Roy collection. David W. The letter concerns the poem and its inspiration Burns had caught a neighbour shooting a hare and was written to the Edinburgh medical professor James Gregory. The authors discuss the differences between the published version and the manuscript, and print both. He discusses the major aspects of his work: the early publications, the songs, his politics and religion, and, especially, his complex literary influences.
Angeletti offers a particularly careful and insightful discussion of an aspect of Byron often glossed over or misunderstood. Italian otherness, though, forms the main focus of the book. Byron lived there between and , and it remained a combination of dream and reality. This habit of exchange characterizes her book as a whole, which is a thoughtful, engaging account of Byron and others.
Cochran shows how important Italian literature was to him. Cochran makes a compelling claim for the importance of these writers to Don Juan. Cochran also tells many amusing anecdotes of the years in Venice, including tales of his huge menagerie. His relation with Ugo Foscolo is more complex. Byron gets annoyed with him, but only because Foscolo offers Byron an image of the more solemn self he once found natural. This is a sharp perception, and typical of the half-suppressed self-awareness Byron possessed in relation to influences he would like to have outgrown.
It begins from the reasonable position that whatever else Byron might have been—philosopher, politician, celebrity—he was, first, a poet. Robert McColl explores the tension between the claims of the Spenserian and ottava rima, which offer two distinct ways of thinking about the past and the future. Not every essay is quite so formalist: others look at psychoanalysis, Greece, water imagery, the problematics of language, and the Derridean trace.
Scholars of Romanticism and of Byron have been in recent years far keener to show their knowledge of Spenserians and anapaests, so this is a well-timed collection. To begin to do so means understanding these contexts and being careful about the way one links them to the poetry.
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Lansdown is just the sort of fair- but sharp-minded critic one needs in an introduction like this. He provides a great deal of information, and clearly knows the scholarly field, but does not allow his story to be dragged into a swamp of academic debate. Given that he is pushed for space it would have been natural for Lansdown to have missed the letters and journals. He tracks this oscillation throughout his career, taking in most of the major works though with less, understandably perhaps, on the satires which he discusses with clear-sighted originality.
A final section considers his legacy in literature, the other arts, politics, and philosophy. Yet these women novelists do not simply revise or critique Byron. Lady Caroline Lamb had good reason to critique Byron, but Franklin shows that she learned from his poetry too. Byronic ambivalence is in some ways a keynote of this book.
Gender and form are interpreted in equally liberal fashion. Byron did not observe strictly the distinction between poetry and prose, and his poetic character depends on a curious combination of and playfulness with masculine and feminine norms. It seems appropriate that his female followers were inspired to reinterpret him in such various ways. The Female Romantics is partly a celebration and reframing of the early to mid-nineteenth-century novel, and partly a celebration and reframing of the rhetoric of Byronism.
The loose, almost novelistic style that Franklin adopts, as well as her very wide range of cultural reference, will likely endear her to scholars of both traditions. Both writers, therefore, are engaged in a kind of social historiography. The sense of time that Rohrbach develops is wholly compelling. She indicates how subtly these writers think about the present in local ways how will people tomorrow frame, and thus give meaning to, my actions taking place now? Byron, on his way back from Greece, got gloomy, carved his name into a rock, and composed some Hudibrastics as a form of relief.
McLean opens up her fascinating involvement with the poet which included writing about him in a novel through examining the many extant letters Porter wrote to her sister. George M. Richard Lansdown and W. Despite their obvious differences, Disraeli was in the s in a similar position to Byron in the early s, especially in being caught between careers in literature and politics, but also, for different reasons, being outsiders thrust into high society.
Rather than being entombed in enclosed spaces, the most open and sublime landscapes become spaces of enclosure. The poem is a staging of sympathy that transfers mental anguish from the mind to the body in pain. His move from secular confession in The Giaour to Catholicism in Parisina in fact, as Hurst shows, opened the way to the carnival of Beppo.
Byron is a poet of freedom, and yet few of his characters, from Childe Harold to Manfred to Cain, achieve it. The essay makes a compelling case for rethinking the ragged discontinuities in this part of the poem. Clare studies continued as lively as ever with a number of important new articles on, especially, editing, poetics, and ecology.
Clare wrote lots of them, and they have usually been celebrated for permitting a kind of sensory immediacy and fidelity to experience. This vision is explained helpfully by reference to Deleuze and Guattari. Building on the work of Pierre Bourdieu and Stanley Cavell, Harrison offers Clare as a prime example of a poet who can teach us to look less for poetic representation of the world, and more for the way poetry resituates us in relation to the world.
His editors, like Clare in so many of his poems, wish to conjure a voice out of an absence. The excellent John Clare Society Journal celebrated thirty years in print last year. It is also bound up, in complex ways, with the political and religious debates of the period. Yet both, for Taylor, do not simply repeat STC: they forge a creative space in his shadow. Kant was relatively well known in radical circles in the s. The first translation of his work possessed a cosmopolitanism that looked Jacobin. A crucial intervention in this respect was Biographia Literaria.
So successful was this move that many afterwards accepted much too readily that Kant was an idealist and a philosopher well suited to support the Coleridgean model of genius. By restoring the earlier conversations in critical journals with thinkers such as Godwin, John Thelwall, Thomas Beddoes, and J.
Murray J. It is a large and complex work, and has only recently begun to influence scholarship. For Evans a crucial aspect of Opus Maximum is its unity. That means that a principle which Coleridge sets out in the book cannot be understood without reference to its context in the rest of the work. This makes reading it very difficult. From the human will follows moral responsibility and an understanding of good and evil. This is the key to the work. A broader, and equally refreshing, claim follows: that we should use ideas like this to bridge the gap between the earlier Coleridge of The Friend and Biographia with the religious and philosophical writings of the s and s.
Coleridge also discusses subjectivity and, in a bewildering way, the Trinity. Her argument is complex, sensitive and persuasive. Pechey discusses the way the poem pivots between frost and its antithesis, offering the reader less a narrative than a series of perceptions that operate on a more intuitive level. Eliot, and Geoffrey Hill have picked up its thinking.
The poem offers a difficult glimpse into the union of poetry and philosophy that Coleridge wished to, but could not ever quite, achieve.
Edgecombe provides a thoughtful discussion of the adaptation of poem into music and the relation between the two forms. Charles Bergman, with scant regard for health and safety directives, took his literature class to the Antarctic. A range of articles looked at Coleridge the politician. Coleridge offers a new model, formed of a sense that consent to the contract grows from the relations between individuals in a community.
He claims an unusual central point in the debate: Herschelian astronomy. The tripartite structure of light helped him think through the tripartite structure of the deity. It did, but with results that Coleridge would not have approved of when his ideas were taken up by F. Following the failure of the Pantisocracy scheme he developed a more nuanced understanding of the urban environment. The principles of justice he explored in later life were, as Hough shows, influenced by his time in Malta, even if the influence seems to have been to prompt him towards a more conservative view.
The Notebooks have been available in full since , but there are many gaps where words and sections have been scored out, written in cipher, or clipped out. This does not quite have the requisite humility. These were not simply embellishments. Rather these very different scientific writers all attempted to communicate an idea that all branches of knowledge could be unified. The organic whole was under threat in an age of disciplinary specialization, but these writers attempted to discover an organic whole.
Sara Coleridge is beginning to emerge as a vital voice in late Romantic and early Victorian culture. Recent years have seen an edition of her poems as well as a number of articles celebrating her achievements as philosopher and thinker. Swaab offers a detailed overview of her career and a wide range of her critical interventions, drawn from manuscript and her work as an editor and periodical reviewer. He is a very fine advocate for her work as a philosopher and critic, and the introduction is itself an important contribution to scholarship.
The selections Swaab offers from her introductory material indicate just how thoroughly she grasped, and saw beyond, its very varied philosophical and literary interventions. She is an especially distinguished Wordsworthian critic, and these contributions may prove to be among her most influential. Swaab restores the excised passages Lockhart objected, among other things, to her praise of Keats. Comments like these suggest just one value of her critical insights, their wit, and even if she is wrong about how readily women appreciate the quality, it ought to earn her many more admirers.
Saunders surveys the way a range of poets, including Amelia Opie, Felicia Hemans, and Letitia Landon, prepared the ground for a new, less overt, form of commentary. Crabbe had two careers, and the second began in after a long period of silence. It was only at this point, Feldman points out, that he began to seem controversial to critics. In the later eighteenth century he was a far more substantial figure as a poet, biographer, and writer on religion and politics. Only one article was dedicated to Hemans, but her work is discussed alongside other writers above.
Brian P. For Hemans the object does not provide, as for many of her contemporaries, a direct link to an absent individual, but simply remains, an empty and impersonal void that cannot finally be bridged. Leigh Hunt was a child star before he was a liberal journalist, but his early success as a poet has been largely forgotten though see YWES 92. The trick, I suppose, is to read the poems with a double eye: on the one hand as poems in a distinct genre, juvenilia, with its own rules and expectations, and on the other as poems in potential, failures, perhaps, but failures which point towards greater achievements.
The first poem, written for a female friend on her birthday, encourages such a double view. It is written with joyous freedom, the perceptions loose and fleeting. The very violence of the transitions is close to bathos, but charmingly so; and yet it is also suggestive of the vivid carelessness that Hunt would employ with much more deliberation later in life. The combination of bookishness and sensuality is a distinctive facet of juvenilia as Hunt practised it, but it is also a distinctive aspect of the poetry he would develop.
Even his most serious poems seem to possess a comic undertow, or a suggestion that he may have slipped. Both produced poetry and essays for the magazine, and in it they used the provisional nature of periodical publication as a prompt to engage in questing, teasing forms of thought. Hunt was a proud Londoner and a great defender of its literary charms in the essays he wrote about it, initially in exile in Italy, in the s.
Westover provides an insightful discussion of them, but he also claims their foundational importance in a new mode of viewing London as a site for literary tourism that would become increasingly prominent in the Victorian period. Although it is by no means unprecedented, it is nonetheless remarkable that a poet who died at 25, and whose career spanned less than five years, should become a subject of perennial biographical interest.
Yet such is the case of John Keats, whose brief life is the subject of a new study this year by Nicholas Roe. Thankfully, nothing could be further from the truth. Although Roe occasionally risks turning his depiction of this other Keats—the tough north London lad—into a caricature of its own, the portrait of the poet that emerges in his study is more fleshed out, more tangibly real, than any provided before.
What is more, it has the peculiar demerit of implying that Keats—one of the most creative writers of his era—could, in fact, only compose poetry about things he had seen, read, or experienced. Ideally, however, both books will be read in tandem with Lawrence M. His book will thus be of interest to Romanticists and historians of early America alike. Of particular interest in the latter half of the article is an account of a number of Keats masks cast in Paris around the turn of the last century that were mistakenly sold as busts of Charles Baudelaire.
The first of these, H. Rogers suggests that Keats would have likely learned of these associations as part of his medical training, and this makes her essay an ideal pairing with Alexander S. The subject of literary afterlives and influences also figured prominently in this year in scholarly discussions of Charles Lamb. Foremost is J. The essays collected here include excellent pieces from David Stewart and John Strachan both of which are covered above as well as a set of important papers by Felicity James and Simon P.
As Riehl suggests, this cryptic utterance may possibly indicate that Payne had submitted his play The Cry of Blood; or, the Juror Murderer to Joseph Glossop manager and owner of the Royal Coburg Hall , or, alternatively, it may be a reference to a play entitled The Murderer, or the Devoted Son , translated by J. That said, two essays published this year address issues of form, gender, and authority in the works of Charlotte Smith and Mary Robinson. All readers of Shelley will have no doubt been pleased by the recent publication of fourth volume of the Longman Annotated English Poets series of The Poems of Shelley: — , which will be covered next year in YWES.
For the non-expert, the wealth of new archival findings presented in each of these collections—let alone the Garland facsimile edition of The Bodleian Shelley Manuscripts [—]—is nothing short of dizzying. The book comprises forty-two chapters by a company of expert scholars, biographers, and critics, and is divided into five thematically arranged sections. Behrendt, whose chapters work effectively in tandem to create a new composite biography of the poet. Wolfson, Jerrold E. Drawing on contributions from Richard Cronin, Jeffrey C. Elsewhere this year, Jessica K.
Ives p. Finally, two essays offered very striking readings of The Cenci. The first of these, Jane E. Four other general studies of Shelley appeared this year. As Crook, an experienced editor of Shelley, goes on to show, many of the dedicatory poems collected in The Posthumous Poems of are a case in point. The four tomes that comprise this edition complete the work that Fulford and Pratt began with Robert Southey: The Poetical Works, — . The first volume of the collection contains the shorter poems Southey composed between and , as well as a number of poems written between and In the first volume, for instance, we see Southey as a scribbler of inscriptions and epitaphs, and a reluctant contributor of album verses.
In the second and third, he emerges as the epic bard of Roderick and the conflicted poet laureate, hounded by his critics and haunted by his radical past. Their volumes will continue to be an indispensable resource for Southey scholars for years to come. The first of these is an unattributed article Southey contributed to the Edinburgh Annual Register in ; the second is his The Expeditions of Orsua; and the Crimes of Aguirre. Her book is thus a major achievement, and a landmark with which future studies of all three poets will engage.
Yet, although Potkay finds the impetus for his study by looking back to the critical writings of Arnold, John Stuart Mill, and Leslie Stephen, he sets out to cover a much broader intellectual scope and to put Wordsworth in dialogue with thinkers from across the western philosophical canon. Nonetheless, the movement of these themes does suggest a mapping onto life, with early chapters focusing on the sensory ethics of audition and the ethics of direct personal encounter, the central chapters focusing on questions of morality, conscience, and politics and the last chapters focusing on life and, significantly, death.
Yet it has often been observed that Romantic eco-criticism, especially of Wordsworth, relies too heavily on impressionistic and problematically de-historicized perspectives. His attention to concepts such as genius loci and to the importance of specific locations in the shaping of the picturesque tradition is also extremely useful. At certain points, however, Hess risks over-generalizing issues that are far more complicated. Peter J. Ian M. Two of these look in particular at his relationship with the poet, mathematician, and astronomer William Rowan Hamilton. It is therefore pleasing to find this topic addressed in Stephen C.
Richard S. Continuing the dual theme of Wordsworthian influence and visual culture, Jerrold E. Cowley was a successful and significant dramatist in the late eighteenth century whose plays were performed in the patent theatres by the star actresses of the time such as Mary Robinson and Sara Siddons. However, Escott also points out the difficulties of being a woman playwright in a world dominated by men and the rivalries with women writers such as Charlotte Smith and Hester Thrale.
Alongside Gothic novelists, Cowley found a legitimate space where she could evade the usual boundaries that confined her. Escott suggests that Cowley used her shorter pieces as legitimate spaces to explore language and rhetoric as well as to discuss the exclusion of women and the lower classes from a classical education. Caldwell argues that the ambiguity over authorship of the prelude may be strategic, enabling Cowley to distance herself from the masculine stance of her opening addresses p. She goes on to make a convincing argument for the prologue being the product of collaboration between the famous female playwright, Cowley, and the lesser-known male playwright, Bate Dudley.
To support her argument Caldwell reproduces the complete transcript of The Dramatic Puffers , examines the friendship and connections between Dudley and Cowley, and analyses the prelude. He further argues that these elements were transparent to Romantic audiences, used to pantomime and tableaux, and cognizant of the current acting styles, which enabled the interpretation of both the silences and the actions of the actors.
Saglia also discusses the production and the critical responses to the play. To situate her argument, Russell problematizes discussions about adultery and divorce at the end of the eighteenth century because of the many moral, legal, and social implications and also because of the competing representations of adultery and divorce in art, literature, the press, and adultery trial publications. Russell discusses a number of adultery cases such as the Cibber—Sloper and Worsley cases. Russell also discusses two high-profile cases that involved actresses of the s, Harriet Esten, who became the mistress of the Duke of Hamilton, and Charlotte and Thomas Twisleton.
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The latter case was debated in Parliament when the play was first staged. As Russell points out, it was not the subject matter of the play that caused the problem, but rather the ambiguity of the ending, which suggested reconciliation between husband and wife, that offended public sensibilities. Discussions of anxieties about the novel and its influence on young women in the eighteenth century are numerous.
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